Police Interrogation Analysis

Improved Essays
The Reid technique is a commonly used police interrogation technique in North America (King & Snook, 2009). This interrogation technique is used to elicit confessions from people suspected of committing a criminal offense. The Reid technique requires that police officers collect factual evidence, then the interviewer questions the suspect in a non-accusatory manner (King & Snook, 2009). Truth or deception is then determined based on behavioural analysis of the suspect. If deception is detected by the interrogator, then the 9-step psychological Reid technique is applied (King & Snook, 2009). However, interrogators often apply this technique as the first step without any physical evidence, where they coerce their suspect to incriminate themselves …show more content…
Therefore, the reliability and credibility of the information gathered is of utmost importance to the investigation (Gudjonsson & Pearse, 2011). The outcome of an interrogation is influenced by a number of factors; nature of the interrogation, age and motivation of suspect, intelligence level, mental health, personality, and access to legal advice (Gudjonsson & Pearse, 2011). With this in mind, the outcome of the interrogation is not always as expected as some individuals break easily under pressure ((Gudjonsson & Pearse, 2011). According to the study conducted by Kassin, Drizin, Grisso, Gudjonsson, Leo & Redlich (2010), false confessions have a devastating impact on the well-being of innocent people as it is one of the leading cause of wrongful convictions. Furthermore, the courts tend to attach significant importance to a suspect’s confession regardless if its true or not (Kassin, et al., 2010). Therefore, interrogators should ensure that innocent people are not coerced into providing a false confession. Every individual charged with an offense is required due process through the courts (Gudjonsson & Pearse, 2011). However, the Reid technique exploits suspects vulnerability through manipulative and confrontational tactics (Gudjonsson & Pearse, 2011). This technique is guilt presumptive and is used to break down the suspects resistance and denial …show more content…
Furthermore, a confession has significant importance in a court of law (Rubin, 2014). Therefore, the investigators can cut corners in their investigative work and still have a high probability of getting a conviction (Rubin, 2014). As a result, ethical issues and concerns are often brought about based on the deceptive tactics used in the Reid technique. The study by Malloy, Shulman & Cauffman (2014), examines why innocent people confess to a criminal act they are innocent of. The findings supported the arguments that people do and the sad truth is, the Reid technique facilitates most of these confessions (Malloy, Shulman & Cauffman, 2014). People under age 25 are more likely to be pressured into making a false confession that links them to a violent criminal activity (Malloy, Shulman & Cauffman, 2014). The innocence project found that in the last 25 years 38% of young people age 18 and under were later exonerated through DNA evidence after being convicted on false testimonies (Rubin, 2014). Juveniles make up a significant number of vulnerable population in society (Rubin, 2014). Therefore, they are susceptible to pressure as they do not understand their rights and how the criminal justice system works (Rubin,

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Interrogation Case Study

    • 1027 Words
    • 5 Pages

    It is then up to the interrogator to read the body language of the suspect and sift through for the truth (Dixon, 2010). The Reid technique is widely used, some researchers believe that all interrogation tactics can be broken up into two categories, minimization and maximization. Minimization refers to when the interrogator displays sympathy and provides the suspect with moral justification for the crime committed, in a gently and subtle for of persuasion (Chapman, 2013; Narchet, Meissner, & Russano, 2011). Maximization, on the other hand, is more aggressive as the interrogator displays a solid belief in the suspect’s guilt and tries to assert that any attempt to deny guilt will fail (Chapman, 2013). Research has shown that use of minimization and maximization, as well as other manipulative techniques, can increase the chance of a false confession being obtained (Narchet et al.,…

    • 1027 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The textbook defines the harmless error doctrine as an incident where “an appellate court can affirm one’s conviction despite the presence of of serious prosecutorial misconduct during the trial” (p. 52). This doctrine exemplifies how prosecutors can practically feel inclined to engage in misconduct seeing that it is very difficult for the court system to punish them for such behavior. Furthermore, this doctrine may also apply to serious cases such as death penalty trials, demonstrating the potential for prosecutor misconduct to negatively effect the outcome of any case, large or small. The author of the chapter provides his suggestion considering the current method in which the criminal justice system deals with motions of trial misconduct. He suggests, “motions for retrial based on false testimony presented by prosecution witnesses should be governed by a standard drawn from newly discovered evidence and prosecutorial misconduct” (p. 52).…

    • 652 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The prosecutor must believe that the defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt even before it goes to trial. They are supposed to be trained to balance fairness and decency. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. Prosecutor misconduct occurs when in the course of their duties they act in ways that are unethical and illegal. Withholding evidence, witness tampering, introduction of false evidence and improper closing arguments are just a few of the tactics used by prosecutors to ensure that they win their conviction.…

    • 1434 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The Crime Control Model

    • 1178 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The crime model heavily relies on the ability of investigative and prosecutorial officers, they might use their distinctive skills to elicit and reconstruct a tolerably accurate account of alleged criminal event that took place. The due process model emphasizes on a view of formal and adjudicative fact-finding process with stressing the possibility of errors. People, such as police, witness and prosecutorial officers, tend to be emotionally aroused in the context with notoriously poor observers of disturbing events so as to damage defendants’ rights. As a result, the further scrutiny to largely avoid the possibilities of human errors is very necessary or at least must be available. However, how far the following scrutiny mechanisms for overlooked and suppressed cases must be available is a controversial topic for the…

    • 1178 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Confirmation Bias Essay

    • 2410 Words
    • 10 Pages

    The issue of confirmation bias is very important because it can happen even in our day to day lives but when it is in the legal system it can be very dangerous to the person that is in the hot seat. Confirmation bias can lead to things such as a false confession or a wrong eyewitness identification. If the police officer thinks the suspect is guilty even before conducting the interview process, they will most likely seek information that is incriminating towards the suspect (Hill, McGeorge, & Memon,…

    • 2410 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    What the suspect leaves behind or purposely doesn’t leave behind, tells law enforcement a lot about their distinct personality. For example: crime scenes that are disorganized with evidence left behind may mean that they’re psychotic and unintelligent while organized scenes point to a more intelligent offender who has carefully plotted his attacks and taken care of evidence. Knowing background information may seem like a secondary priority but in cases where the suspect left little to no evidence, behavioral clues is vital for their…

    • 1132 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    The REID method of interview can be so intense on a suspect or witness that they may end up believe some of the lies being presented to them. One of the foundations of the REID method is that It goes against common sense for an innocent person to confess to a crime The PEACE Model. The PEACE Model of investigative interviewing was developed in the early 90s as a collaborative effort between law enforcement and psychologists in England and Wales. This model takes a conversational, non-confrontational approach to getting information from an investigation interview subject. It was designed to reduce the number of false confessions that were being recorded due to overly aggressive interviewing tactics.…

    • 1534 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Sex Rape Case Study

    • 1515 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Analyze the importance of the evidentiary examination of the victims of a sex crime. Address what goes into preserving this type of evidence for court. An evidentiary examination must be performed in the event a sexual assault has taken place. Although reliable the examination is not without its draw backs and needs to be conducted by qualified personnel and the evidence has to be handled properly to lessen or avoid courtroom challenges. The victim’s body is the primary crime scene in sexual assault cases.…

    • 1515 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    (INSERT TOPIC SENTENCE). In the Criminal Justice System, Miranda rights are one of the most important elements when making an arrest. When a law enforcement officer makes an arrest and decides to question the suspect, they must read the Miranda rights out loud. If the individual starts talking and incriminating itself before the police officers informs them about the Miranda rights, the information provided from the suspect will be inadmissible in court. According to Cole, Smith, and DeJong (2016), the Miranda rights are as follows: Suspect must be told that (1) they have the right to remain silent; (2) if they decide to make a statement, it can and will be used against them in court; (3) they have the right to an attorney present during…

    • 1028 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Richard Leo argues that it’s not uncommon for people to make false confessions when talking to investigators and it happens more frequently than not (Leo, 1998). The author also claims that courts and law enforcement officers treat the Constitution differently, adding as much or as little discretion as needed. When it comes to certain things in the criminal justice system, discretion shouldn’t be necessarily, everyone should receive the same outcome or punishment. “U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring that suspects in custody must be informed of their rights to remain silent and be represented during questioning” (Cole, Smith, DeJong, 2014).…

    • 1304 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays