The Principles Of The Octet Rule, Electronegativity, Polarity

Improved Essays
The Chemistry of H2O. Principles of the Octet Rule, Electronegativity, Polarity, Density, and their effect on H2O
Aryeh L. Strauss
Suny Rockland

Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge (neutrons are neutral). The protons are in the nucleus of the atom and the electrons fill shells surrounding the nucleus. The shells closest to the nucleus have the lowest energy level and the shells furthest away have the highest energy levels. The outermost shell with the highest energy level is called the valence shell.

When molecules form the individual atoms typically want to fill its valence shell. For example helium is full with two electrons in its valence shell
…show more content…
When an atom (gives up or receives electron/s and therefore) has a different amount of electrons than in its natural state the amount of electrons will differ from the protons and is called ionic. When an atom has more electrons than protons it has a negative charge and if it has less electrons than protons it has a positive charge. Positively charged ions are attracted to negatively charged ions to form an ionic bond.

Not all atoms give up or receive electrons to complete its valence electrons when they form molecules. Atoms can share electrons to satisfy the octet rule. This is called a molecular bond. In a molecular bond, the shared electrons create a bond between atoms which is called a bonding pair. Paired atoms which are not shared are called lone pairs.

Electronegativity is the likelihood of an atom to attract an electron pair to itself in a molecular bond. The atoms which are closer to having eight electrons are much more likely to attract electron pairs to themselves and have a much greater electronegativity. The atoms which are least likely to attract electron pairs have a lower electronegativity. If there is a difference in electronegativity the electron is more likely to be near the atom with the greater value and is less likely to be near the atom with the lower value. This creates a polar bond, meaning one atom will have a greater negative charge and one will have a greater positive
…show more content…
The more mass there is in a given volume, the greater the density. The greater the volume for a given mass, the density is less. This can be represented with the formula density equals mass divided by volume. If the numerator increases which is an increase in mass, density will increase, and if the denominator increases which is an increase in volume, the density will decrease.
Volume of non-liquids can be measured through water displacement. Water is placed in a vessel and the volume is recorded, then the object is placed in the vessel and the final volume is recorded. The final volume minus the initial volume is the volume of the substance. Liquids are measured directly by how much it fills a vessel. The volume of gas is the total volume of the vessel.

Density varies in the different physical states; solids, liquids, and gases. Typically a substance in its solid state is denser then in its liquid state. The reason is, liquid molecules aren’t held as tightly together and are moving at a faster rate (as in the solid state) so they spread out more, hence the volume is greater. The density of gas is even less since gas molecules don’t conform to a given shape and will expand to the size of its

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Chemical Periodicity

    • 1023 Words
    • 5 Pages

    As one moves across a period, the atomic radius is smaller. In other words, when one moves across the periodic table from left to right, the atomic radius gets smaller. This is because there is increased attraction which makes the atom smaller. As one moves down the periodic table with increased principal quantum number, the atomic radius gets larger. This is because the average distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus increases.…

    • 1023 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Copper Atom Research Paper

    • 1278 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Atoms are what make up what we call “matter.” They are the smallest units of a chemical element, and they consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. These components form an atom’s subatomic particles. Before discussing the copper atom at length, we must first be able to understand the components that comprise an atom. The first of these components that make up an atom is the proton. The proton is a very important part of an atom, because the atomic number of an atom is equivalent to the number of protons that that atom has.…

    • 1278 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Ion is a group of atoms which they behave on an electrical charge; there are two types of ions; cation and anion. Cation is a positively charged ion whereas Anion is a negatively charged ion. First ionisation energy- The first ionisation energy is the energy to remove electrons that are unstable from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to gain 1 mole of gaseous ions with a positively charge (1+) As you go down a group, the energy decreases from the top to the bottom due to the shielding effect. When there are a lot of electrons shielding the outer electron shell from the nucleus, energy is less needed to expel an electron from an atom. Fluorine has the most ionization energy and Caesium with the least.…

    • 589 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Sn2 Reaction Essay

    • 1119 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Since a nucleophile carries with it its own electrons, its path of attack will be hindered due to electronic repulsion between the two. (Secondary reason)  Comment: When asked to explain why halogenoarenes are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution than halogenoalkanes, choose the primary reason, i.e. partial double bond…

    • 1119 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The spectrum was red-shifted because the formamido group was not as effective at donating electrons as a phenyl group. The HOMO and LUMO energies became closer together. 6-isocyano-1,2,3-triphenyl azulene was the next solution tested. It had a phenyl group (EDG) on two of its odd carbons; the HOMO energy was increased. A phenyl group (EDG) and an isocyano group (EWG) were present on odd carbons; these worked…

    • 2146 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The Atomic Model

    • 723 Words
    • 3 Pages

    This theory says that in order for an electron to orbit the nucleus of an atom, the number of wavelengths that it takes to get around must be quantized; meaning an integer number. Atoms have different energy states each with a specific energy. Photons (basic units of light) interact with electrons by giving or taking away energy. A photon with correct energy and wavelength hits an atom’s electrons, allowing the electrons to jump to a higher energy states which makes the electron “excited”. When a photon is emitted the atom drops to a lower energy state because without the energy of the photon, the electron becomes…

    • 723 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    When we move down a group in the table the electronegativity decreases this is due to the atomic number which increases down the group this causes a bigger distance between the electron and the nucleus so the atomic radius is bigger. So we can see electronegativity is the tendency of measure of an atom attracting a bonding pair of electrons. A Pauling scale is usually used for electronegativity values. Electronegativity can affect bonding of pure substances and solutions. Substances that have a high electronegativity will more likely form an ionic bond and ones with a smaller amount of electronegativity will form covalent bonds.…

    • 1538 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Most of the particles proved to fit this theory by passing through the gold foil, however, some were scattered and deflected backwards. Rutherford had to alter the previous model to fit with his newfound discoveries. The reason the majority of the alfa particles were able to pass through the sheet of gold foil without being deflected was because the atom consists of mostly empty space. Rutherford also believed there had to have been a massive positively charged particle in the center of the atom and that the electrons revolved around the central particle instead of being dispersed throughout. These particles are responsible for the scattering deflecting of the alfa particles when shot through the gold foil.…

    • 1041 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Ionic Holding

    • 882 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This substantial distinction prompts to the loss of an electron from the less electronegative particle and the pickup of that electron by the more electronegative molecule, bringing about two particles. These oppositely charged particles feel a fascination in each other, and this electrostatic fascination constitutes an ionic bond. Ionic holding happens between a nonmetal, which goes about as an electron acceptor, and a metal, which goes about as an electron contributor. Metals have few valence electrons, though nonmetals have more like eight valence electrons; to effectively fulfill the octet control, the nonmetal will acknowledge an electron gave by the metal. More than one electron can be given and got in an ionic bond.…

    • 882 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Thermodynamics: Molecules

    • 1180 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Protons are positively charged and neutrons are neutral in charge. Together they make up much of the mass of the atom. They both have similar masses. Surrounding the nucleus are electrons. These are arranged in shells, or…

    • 1180 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays