Pica Case Study

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Treatments Studies of pica show that there has been very little amounts of investigation done based on community-based research for people with pica (Gravestock, 2008). In other words, there has been little research done on individuals with pica whom do not live in an institutional setting and live within their communities. In order for an intervention to be a successful treatment, it must diminish the behavior 70%-90% from the baseline (Williams & McAdam, 2012). This successful treatment must also be able to contend with the frequency of automatic reinforcement (Sturmey & Didden, 2014). The hardest part of finding successful treatments is because automatic reinforcement is constant so the treatment must be able to apply constantly as …show more content…
The ten categories of behavioral interventions include contingent aversive presentation, differential reinforcement, food aversion, discrimination training, negative practice, non-contingent reinforcement, overcorrection, physical restraint, time out and visual screening (McAdam et al. 2004). Treatments for pica, because they are high profile, often combine different types of behavioral interventions to diminish the dangerous behavior as immediately as possible to prevent any serious medical conditions to occur which makes it hard to determine which exact treatment was the most successful (Ferreri, 2006). McAdam et al. (2004) found that more research needs to be done to assess whether current interventions are successful due to the various types of people, differences of developmental disabilities, and the a range of settings. In other words, there has been a limited research done on the reasons why interventions are successful due to the numerous variables associated with individuals with pica. Nutritional interventions used so far have been medications for iron, zinc, vitamin and mineral supplements, antidepressants and methylphenidates (Gravestock, …show more content…
(2011) found that majority of treatments for pica fall under the behavioral interventions category because they involve the environment, consequences, and behavioral skills training. Behavioral treatments aim to reduce pica by having controlling consumption to an appropriate level, providing alternative sources of stimulation, and by providing the means to control consumption around items that are non-nutritive (Hagopian et al. 2011). These help with the reduction of pica behaviors because they all offer other outlets to diminish the challenging behaviors. Results of behavioral interventions show that they are high effective treatments when used together for treating self-injurious behaviors (Call, 2015). The treatment 's effectiveness is affected by the different variables within the causes of pica (Pace & Toyer, 2000). In other words, the treatment 's effectiveness is dependent on the individual 's cause of pica such as environmental factors or oral

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