Morphine Research Paper

727 Words 3 Pages
Morphine is a drug that is used for pain relief. It acts on the central nervous system to decrease pain. The drug can be given in many forms, such as through the mouth, insertion into muscle, under the skin, intravenously, into the spinal cord, and rectally. This drug can be used for both chronic and acute pain. A person who has recently undergone surgery or a pregnancy are examples for why someone may choose to consume morphine. Morphine can increase the pain tolerance for a person who is taking the drug. However, morphine is a highly addictive drug if abused.
Morphine is produced from either opium or concentrated poppy straw. Opium is a sticky brown resin received from drying the latex that comes from the lanced poppy pods, and concentrated
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During this process around 60 to 50 percent of the drug would be eliminated in the form of urine and the rest of the morphine will reach the central nervous system. As said on Morphine (And Heroin) “The oral bioavailability of morphine is 20-40%, and 35% is bound in plasma. Morphine has a short half-life of 1.5 - 7 hours and is primarily glucuroconjugated at positions 3 and 6, to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), respectively. A small amount (5%) is demethylated to normorphine. M6G is an active metabolite with a higher potency than morphine, and it can accumulate following chronic administration or in renally impaired individuals. The half-life of M6G is 4 (+/- 1.5) hours. Close to 90% of a single morphine dose is eliminated in the 72 hours urine, with 75% present as M3G and less than 10% as unchanged morphine” (Morphine (And Heroin)). The majority of the morphine taken is excreted from the body within 24 hours, this drug has an elimination half-life of about 120 min. This drug is stored in the fat at times and can remain detectable long after each use. Now that the pharmacokinetics is know, what pharmacodynamics happen with this …show more content…
When a person takes morphine each function of the body is affected differently. It impacts a person’s vision to their restroom behaviors. There are may side effects of morphine, some including the common effects of cramps, difficulty having a bowl movement, drowsiness, false or unusual since of well-being, relaxed and calm feeling, sleepiness or unusual drowsiness, and weight loss. Less common effects include absent, missed, or irregular ministration, agitation, bad taste, change in vision, depression, dry mouth, face is warm or hot to touch, floating feeling, halos around light, heartburn or indigestion, loss in sexual ability, muscle stiffness, and a lot more. Morphine affects the body in so many ways it hurts the nerves system, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, genitourinary, hematologic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, dermatologic, ocular, hypersensitivity, hepatic, and metabolic. Morphine can effects the nervous system causing a person can have drowsiness, dizziness, fever, anxiety, and at the worst withdrawal symptoms after either abrupt cessation or fast tapering of the drug, headache, amnesia, paresthesia, pallor, and seizures. The effects of morphine on the respiratory system may include, rhinitis, asthma, voice alteration, and bronchospasms. While, dysphagia, dyspepsia, stomach atom disorder, gastro esophageal reflux and

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