Physical Newtorking: Telecommunications Essay

1657 Words Jul 5th, 2014 7 Pages
Telecommunications
1. Describe a local land line phone system based on the following Landline Telephone Components.
a. Local Loop - consists of twisted pair copper cables with a maximum length of three miles. It is a physical link from the customer to the service provider’s network; the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in a local exchange carrier or telephone exchange.
b. Central Office - a building used to house the inside plant equipment including support for up to 20 local exchanges, each serving a certain geographical exchange area. Bell Systems established a uniform system of identifying each telephone exchange with a three digit code thus inventing the area code.
c. Local Exchanges - serves a group of
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Other limitations include obstacles such as hills and large buildings. Cable TV became the solution to these problems. ii. Community Antenna - simply consisted of an antenna placed on top of a hill with a copper cable carrying the signal from there to the user or groups of users. As systems matured, amplifiers were added to boost signal strength. Now this system has evolved into a complex combination of copper cabling and electronics. iii. Network Access Point - (NAP) a terminal that serves as a connection point for drop cables that can be installed in the air, pedestal, or in a hand hole, and located close to the homes or buildings it services. iv. Network Interface Device - drop cable runs from the NAP to the NID which is typically mounted to the outside of the house or building. It is an all plastic enclosure the houses the electronics and cables that support the network. These electronics will interface with the existing cabling for TV, phone, and Internet.
d. Telecommunication Services
i. RBOCs - (regional Bell operating company) which is comprised of seven small companies owned by AT&T. AT&T has merged four out of the original seven by 2006. These service providers provide most of the fixed line, wireless, and data services in America. The key advantage of RBOC as opposed to MSO companies is they offer mobile phone wireless service. ii. Unbundling - Basically, AT&T owned everything, they were still a monopoly even after splitting

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