Essay on Phobias : Behavioral And Cognitive Approaches

1445 Words Dec 10th, 2015 6 Pages
Phobias are defined as persistent fears or anxieties that are out of proportion to the actual danger or demands of the given situation. They cannot be explained or reasoned, and they are completely out of the person’s voluntary control. This ultimately leads to avoidance of the feared situation and can in some degree be disabling to the person (Morgan, 2003, p.11). Specific phobias include for example a fear of spiders, snakes and heights. Social phobias include fear of social situations and agoraphobia, which is a fear of open or public places. Paradigms provide us different psychological insight that helps us understand how these phobias can form. A paradigm is an agreement within a discipline defining the subject matter to be studied and the correct methods for studying it (Osthaus, 2015). The most useful paradigms are the psychoanalytic, behavioral and cognitive approaches because they explain the different causes behind abnormal behavior, including phobias.
The psychoanalytic paradigm is focused on the development of the sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person 's behavior. Sigmund Freud is the main creator of psychoanalysis. The goals of this particular paradigm are to understand the nature of the mental apparatus, as well as being able to free people from the tyranny of their subconscious. This approach revolves around inner sexual feelings in an individual as well as the id, ego and superego of our minds. The id is where our instinctive,…

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