Phobias and Addictions Essay

834 Words Jul 10th, 2014 4 Pages
Phobias and Addictions Paper
Psy/300
4/26/14

Phobias and Addictions Paper
Introduction
Several individuals develop phobias or addictions in their lifetime. Phobias are an illogical fear that is of no danger to anyone else. Phobias are developed through classical conditioning. According to Barlett (2013) “addiction is defined as the need for and use of a habit forming substance despite knowledge that the substance is harmful” (p. 349). Additions can be developed through operant conditioning. Phobias and addictions are different forms of behaviors just as classical and operant conditioning are responses learn responses. Extinction is also a form of classical conditioning. Both classical and operant conditioning differ in how an
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Addictions can be developed through operant conditioning because whatever learned response or feeling a person develops from repeating it over and over is because they have become addicted to wanting or feeling the response. An example of operant conditioning would be when a person first learns the feeling of becoming high from opiates. The feeling stimulates the individual so much that they want to feel the rush of being high over and over. Operant conditioning may lead a person to an addiction.
Both classical and operant conditioning are responses to an individual’s surroundings and behaviors. Classical and operant conditioning have many differences. Classical conditioning is an uncontrolled response. The example of Pavlov’s dogs best explains involuntary responses. The dog Pavlov used in the study would salivate when thinking of food. A bell was rang right before the dog would receive food. The dog’s reaction to food could now be controlled by a bell. It salivated because the dog associated the bell with food. Classical conditioning also differs in that it can be used with positive reinforcement. Operant conditioning is a voluntary response to an incentive. Our text states that, “operants are behaviors that are emitted (spontaneously produced) rather than elicited by the

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