Essay on Personel Management
and Mixed Methods
John W. Creswell
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
International Educational and Professional Publisher
~ 6 7 6 3Copyright O 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
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Cover image copyright O Sheldan CollinsICorbis; used by permission.
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(e.g., faculty committees) that read and support proposals for research. What frameworks exist for designing a proposal? Although different types and terms abound In the literature, I will focus on three: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. ' h first
has been available to the social and human scientist for years, the second has emerged primarily during the last three or four decades, and the last i new and still developing in form and substance. s T i chapter introduces the reader to the three approaches to hs research. I suggest that to understandthem, the proposal developer needs to consider three framework elements: philosophical assumptions about what constltutes knowledge claims; general procedures of research called strategies of inquhy and detailed procedures of data collection, analysis, and writing. called methods. Qualitative. quantitative, and mixed methods approaches frame each of these elements differently, and these diefences are identified and discussed in this chapter. 'Then typical scenarios that combine the three elements are advanced, followed by the reasons why one would choose one approach over another in designing a study. ' hs discusTi sion will not be a philosophical treatise on the nature of