Permissive Parenting Styles
A connection between parents and their children is a protective factor against a number of undesirable outcomes for children (Roth and Brooks-Gunn 2000).
Previous studies have found that adolescents with close relationships to their parents had lower levels of depression (Ge et al 1996) and that closeness to parents mediated the effects of stressful life events and the development of depression (Dmitrieva et al 2004). Further study has also shown that contact between parents and children is protective against negative psychosocial outcomes.
Thus shift work could affect adolescents negatively if the relationship is negative or the routine is mismanaged, or positively if monitoring is good and sets a positive home environment or it could be neutral if there are both positive and negative effects. Han, W.J., & Miller, D.P.(2009)
Psychosocial distress, Substance abuse and sex
Blum et al’s13 model for understanding the vulnerability of adolescents to risk behavior. Vulnerability according to these authors is an interactive process between the social contexts in which a young person lives and a set of underlying personal factors that increase the likelihood of behaviors (eg, sexual behavior, violent behavior) that might lead to