Periodontal Disease: A Case Study

Superior Essays
Introduction
Periodontal disease refers to any form of pathologic inflammation of the tissues that surround the teeth and it is considered one of the most common causes of teeth loss on adults in United States. According to a recent report from CDC (Control Disease Center), 47.2% of adults aged 30 years and older have some form of periodontal disease. There are two general categories of periodontal diseases, and their classification is based on whether there is attachment or bone loss involved in the clinical findings. Furthermore, periodontal disease can be gingivitis if no attachment loss or periodontitis if the gingival attachment moved from its healthy position which is coronal to cementum-enamel-junction(CEJ). Gingivitis refers to inflammation
…show more content…
Malocclusion refers to a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close; and, when the interproximal contact area between neighbor teeth on a same arch is bigger due to tooth rotation or when such contact is open. Consequently, this unusual alignment cause the teeth of one arch not to have a nice contact area between them, fact that may predispose an individual to be more susceptible to dental biofilm accumulation and calculus formation. Eventually, such biofilm formation attract pathogenic bacterias that affect negatively the tissues of the periodontium causing any form of periodontal disease, either gingivitis and/or periodontitis. Some of the negative effects, that can be seen clinically, are gum inflammation, bleeding, suppuration, apical migration of the free gingival margin, exposure of cementum-enamel junction. Radiographically, clinicians can observe reduction of the crestal bone levels or other changes like fuzziness of the lamina dura at the crestal bone, widening of the periodontal ligaments (PDL). Patient with malocclusion can go under orthodontic treatment to improve esthetic and to avoid some type of periodontal disease; but still they can compromised the bone …show more content…
When individuals presents with some types of periodontal disease, either gingivitis or periodontitis, there are some local factor that exacerbate the destruction of the periodontium. Such is the case when teeth are misalign or have an greater contact area between them, fact that makes difficult the proper daily removal of bacterial biofilm leading inflammation response of the body to such bacterial accumulation and consequently the periodontium becomes diseased. Other local factors are bruxism and traumatic occlusion. Bruxism by itself does not cause periodontal disease when the host presents a healthy periodontium, but if bruxism coexist on an individual who has a history of periodontitis with bone loss and apical migration of the junctional epithelium, then the progresses of the disease occurs more rapidly than if the individual would have periodontitis only. Similar to bruxism as a contributing factor is the case of trauma from occlusion. Traumatic occlusion can be primary if the individual 's periodontium is healthy and an extreme occlusal force is applied to teeth, or it can be secondary if a normal occlusal force is applied to a diseased periodontium. Trauma from occlusion does not cause periodontal pockets or gingivitis as long as inflammation is limited to the gingiva. In cases where primary occlusal trauma cause some damage of the

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Periodontal Disease

    • 558 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Many risk factors can cause periodontal disease. Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors. Smoking can also lower the chances for successful treatment. Hormonal changes can make gums more sensitive and make it a lot easier for gingivitis to occur. People with diabetes have a higher chance of developing gingivitis. There are currently tons of prescription and over the counter medications that can reduce the flow of saliva which affects the mouth. If the mouth doesn’t have enough saliva the mouth is very vulnerable to infections such as periodontal disease. Also some medications can cause abnormal overgrowth of the gum tissue which will make it difficult to keep the gums and teeth…

    • 558 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Chronic periodontitis requires supervision and maintenance over a period of time after treatment in order to achieve long-term stability of results and to minimise recurrence.…

    • 337 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In conclusion, it is necessary as oral health care providers to recognize the link between the patient’s systemic health and oral health. Further testing is needed to determine if there is a direct correlation between OSAS and periodontitis. However, there is an indirect link between the signs and symptoms of OSAS and the development of periodontitis. Dental hygienists need to be acutely aware of this indirect link and closely monitor their patients for OSAS and…

    • 801 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Research shows that malocclusions have significant links to serious conditions, such as periodontal disease, diabetes and heart disease. Studies even suggest that the chance of an adult with malocclusion having periodontal disease is up by 50 percent.…

    • 339 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Vital signs were taken and revealed the patient's blood pressure was 130/80 mmHg. The patient blood pressure is lower at this appointment, however, it is not at the recommended range for blood pressure. The current blood pressure reading is in the prehypertension range. The patient's pulse was 80 BPM and was within the normal limits. It was recommended by an instructor to retake bitewings radiographs due to overlap on the previous radiographs. It was also important to take new bitewings due to the patient's amount of decay. The retake of the bitewings was important in order to correcting detect those areas of decay. A plaque score was taken to provide the patient with individualized oral hygiene instructions detailed to the patient. The patient's plaque score was 42% and the patient's goal for the next appointment is 20%. The plaque score revealed evident plaque on the mandibular anterior teeth, therefore, an end tuft brush was recommended. An end tuft brush was necessary due to the patient having crowding in the mandibular anterior which causes difficulty in cleaning that area. An end tuft brush is also necessary for the patient's third molars due to limited access. The plaque score also revealed other areas missed after brushing which included interproximal areas. Oral hygiene instructions for flossing included having the patient show the common flossing patterns at home. The dental…

    • 1783 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Trisomy 21 Disability

    • 1112 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Down syndrome individuals develop periodontal disease earlier and it is more rapid (Zigmond et al., 2006, p.492). As Sue Silver (2000) noted, “Several factors have been implicated in the periodontal problems of patients with Down’s syndrome, including poor oral hygiene, an impaired immune system, fragile periodontal tissue, and early senescence (p. 812.) Many factors contribute to Down Syndrome individuals’ increased suseptiablility to periodontal disease. As perviously discussed, small teeth roots are commonly found in down syndrome individuals; this unfavorable crown-to-root ratio may lead to impaired chewing function ( Shore et al., 2010, p.18). Difficulty in chewing and swallowing can lead to a stagnation of food in the oral cavity, which can contribute to periodontal disease (Shore et al.,2010, p. 18) Interestingly enough, almost 100% of down syndrome patients under the age of 30 have periodontal disease (Ferreira, 2016, p.1) Mouth breathing amongst down syndrome individuals is a factor that contributes to increased chronic periodontitis (Shore et al., 2010, p.18). A study found that in down syndrome individuals the teeth most often severely affected by periodontitis were the lower central incisors and the upper first molars. (Zigmond et al., 2006, p.498). It is thought that the susceptibility of these specific teeth to periodontitis might correlate with the fact that these teeth erupt first, and therefore, are exposed to destructive environmental factors longer (Zigmond et al., 2006, p. 498). Periodontal disease in these patients is severe, generalized, with rapid progression ( Ferreira et al., 2016, p.2) Periodontal disease is not attributed entirely to physical characterisitics, but it is also a result of bacterial…

    • 1112 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Decent Essays

    By some estimates, more than half the adult population have gum disease. Gum disease initially starts as gingivitis and can progress to periodontitis. If this diagnosis is left untreated, its progression can lead to tooth loss.…

    • 67 Words
    • 1 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Periodontic studies in Spanish Fork, Canyon Dental Clinic, have yielded some results as stated below.…

    • 338 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    A person suffering from a gum disease may need to see a periodontist. They treat problems of the teeth and surrounding tissues, including dental implants. Furthermore, they work with a patient to maintain the health and function of the mouth and its tissues.…

    • 396 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Gingivitis Research Paper

    • 201 Words
    • 1 Pages

    Gingivitis is the medical term for early gum disease, or periodontal disease. In general, gum disease can be caused by long-term exposure to plaque, the sticky but colorless film on teeth that forms after eating or sleeping.…

    • 201 Words
    • 1 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Dental Insurance

    • 1387 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The oral diseases associated with the systemic diseases and it spread through metastatic injury, metastatic infection and metastatic inflammation (Li, Kolltveit, Tronstad, & Olsen, 2000, p. 547). Poor oral hygiene leads to many cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and infective endocarditis (Li et al., 2000). In pregnancy Oral infections tend to increase the risk for or contribute to low birth weight in newborns (Li et al., 2000, p. 553). Severe periodontal infection often coexists with severe diabetes mellitus (Li et al., 2000, p.…

    • 1387 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    et al. 2013). Periodontal disease is a chronic destructive disease which can occur in children, adults, and the elderly population. When periodontal tissue damage occurs over time, there is a loss of alveolar bone. Scientific articles proved that postmenopausal osteoporosis leads to periodontal disease. In patients who have postmenopausal osteoporosis they are a greater risk of developing periodontal disease which is an irreversible condition. If they could find a solution for postmenopausal osteoporosis then they would not be at risk for developing periodontal disease. “The Relationship Between Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease,” included a review of 17 full- text articles. In the 17 studies, 11 showed a positive relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease. In the other six remaining studies found no significant relationship between the two. The data showed that there is a greater propensity to lose alveolar bone in subjects with osteoporosis, especially in subjects with already existing periodontitis. (Esfahanian, V., Shamami, M.S., & Shamami, M.S…

    • 377 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    From actual measurements such as gum looking to sophisticated got weeknesses analysis and molecular assays for the identification of biomarkers on the different stages of the sickness, substantial improvements have been created on the understanding of the mediators implicated on the begin and development of periodontitis.…

    • 474 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    MMPs are produced by PMNs, macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and junctional epithelial cells. In a healthy tissue, MMPs promote the replacement of periodontal connective tissue matrix. Usually, high numbers of MMPs is seem during a chronic bacterial infection. The result in the periodontal tissue, is the increase destruction of the connective tissue. The main component of the extracellular matrix of soft and hard periodontal tissue that is affected is collagen. The matrix metalloproteinases with collagen-degrading properties are known as collagenases and gelatinases. Collagenases MMP are 1, -8, -13 and -14, and gelatinases are -2 and -9. Both types can cause gingiva recession, pocket formation, tooth mobility and periodontal attachment…

    • 570 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The study subjects were grouped into one of three groups: individuals who had periodontal disease treatment, individuals who had at least one other dental treatment (whether it be restorative, prosthetic or surgical), and finally, individuals who received no dental treatment. The medical cost for each group was calculated after a two-year period and displayed a reduction of cost when individuals who had periodontal treatment in the first year of the study were compared to those who were only treated in the second year. Those treated for periodontal disease with diabetes displayed a 9% associated reduction of in overall medical costs, CAD showed 16%, and CVD showed…

    • 1622 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays