Periodontal Disease Essay

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Introduction
Periodontal disease refers to any form of pathologic inflammation of the tissues that surround the teeth and it is considered one of the most common causes of teeth loss on adults in United States. According to a recent report from CDC (Control Disease Center), 47.2% of adults aged 30 years and older have some form of periodontal disease. There are two general categories of periodontal diseases, and their classification is based on whether there is attachment or bone loss involved in the clinical findings. Furthermore, periodontal disease can be gingivitis if no attachment loss or periodontitis if the gingival attachment moved from its healthy position which is coronal to cementum-enamel-junction(CEJ). Gingivitis refers to inflammation
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Malocclusion refers to a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close; and, when the interproximal contact area between neighbor teeth on a same arch is bigger due to tooth rotation or when such contact is open. Consequently, this unusual alignment cause the teeth of one arch not to have a nice contact area between them, fact that may predispose an individual to be more susceptible to dental biofilm accumulation and calculus formation. Eventually, such biofilm formation attract pathogenic bacterias that affect negatively the tissues of the periodontium causing any form of periodontal disease, either gingivitis and/or periodontitis. Some of the negative effects, that can be seen clinically, are gum inflammation, bleeding, suppuration, apical migration of the free gingival margin, exposure of cementum-enamel junction. Radiographically, clinicians can observe reduction of the crestal bone levels or other changes like fuzziness of the lamina dura at the crestal bone, widening of the periodontal ligaments (PDL). Patient with malocclusion can go under orthodontic treatment to improve esthetic and to avoid some type of periodontal disease; but still they can compromised the bone …show more content…
According to previous definition there are two main parafuctional habits that puts extra pressure on individual 's teeth, and they are clenching and/or bruxism. The Merriam Webster dictionary defines bruxism as the habit of unconsciously gritting or grinding the teeth, and reveals that the origin and etymology of the term bruxism comes from the Greek word "brychein," which means "to grind or gnash the opposing rows of upper and lower molar teeth. The Glossary of Prosthodontics Terms defines bruxism as parafuctional tooth grinding habit consisting of involuntary rhythmic or spasmodic nonfunctional gnashing, grinding, or clenching of teeth. In 2015 the American Academy of Oral Medicine published that if bruxism occurs during the day it is termed awake or diurnal bruxism and it can present as semi voluntary clenching or lateral tooth grinding movement; but if the grinding or clenching occurs at night it is termed sleep bruxism. About 30 million to 40 million of children and adults in United States are affected by any form of bruxism (Columbia University, 2013). Although no causative association exist between bruxism and gingival inflammation or periodontitis, bruxism can cause tooth mobility, tooth wear or fracture, and periodontal and muscle pain and may contribute to masticatory system disorders (Carranza

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