Pediatric Pathology

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Pediatric pathologies come in many different forms, some hereditary or genetic, others as an injury caused during birth. As PTA’s we play a very important role in the life’s of these patients. It is out job to help them live a life as normal as possible applying deferent methods and modalities to accomplish those results. In this paper I will be writing about some of those pathologies, including their clinical features, medical and physical therapy treatments. Tibial Torsion, Fragile X, and Brachial Plexus injuries (Erb’s and klumpke’s palsy are among some of them.
Tibial Torsion can be an internal or external rotation on the tibia in relation to the femur. Internal tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the tibia bone, which leads to
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This event can stretch the brachial plexus damaging the nerves. Erb’s Palsy or waiter’s tip is the most common brachial plexus injury; it’s a paralysis of the arm cause by an injury of the upper arm main nerves, mainly C5-C6. With Erb’s palsy the affected arm may be limp, held against the side of the body, and bent at the elbow. Infants with this injury have an absence of the more and tonic neck reflexes. The condition is usually not permanent and recovery can take up to several months. Klumpke’s palsy or claw hand involves an injury to C8-T1. Symptoms include paralysis to hand muscles, flexors of the wrist and fingers. Their hand is paralyzed and has an absent grasp reflex which causes a “claw hand deformity”. It is rare to have an isolated klumpke’s syndrome. With both of these conditions is very important to encourage the child to perform developmental activities. Physical therapy plays a very important role and it should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis or surgery, and before joint or muscle tightness has developed. Physical therapists work with children with brachial plexus injury to prevent or reduce joint contractures, maintain or improve muscle strength, adapt toys or activities to promote movement and play.
In conclusion Tibial Torsion, Fragile X, and Brachial Plexus injuries (Erb’s and klumpke’s palsy have a traumatic effect on the patients and their loved ones. Something all these pathologies have in common is the stress they put on the patients families. It is extremely important that families receive the most accurate information in order to help provide the best care

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