Running Head: Integrated Pathophysiology
Integrated Pathophysiology Paper
Integrated Pathophysiology 2
Mr. F. is a seventy-three year old Caucasian male who is twice divorced and lives alone in Sweetwater, Texas. He has two children living, and two deceased children. Both of his parents are deceased; his father died at the age of sixty-nine of prostate cancer, his mother at the age of seventy-two of a stroke. He is self-employed, owning a local dirt contracting company for about thirty years now. Mr. F. stands five-foot and nine inches tall and weighs two hundred sixty pounds, exhibiting moderate obesity and has been for the past twenty-five years. He has a longstanding history of
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Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2006). It is caused by increases in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, or both. The cardiac output is the volume of blood that is ejected by the heart each minute. Peripheral resistance is a resistance to the flow of blood out side of the heart. It can be considered either primary or secondary. Primary hypertension has no known causative factors other than relation to genetic predisposition, obesity, stress, increased alcohol intake, diabetes, and or sodium and water retention in which all increase the total workload of the heart and increase fluid volume with in the vascular space (Zerwekh, Claborn & Gaglione, 2006). Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure with an identifiable cause that may include but not limited to; renal stenosis, congenital heart defects, Cushing’s syndrome, pheochromocytoma, untreated sleep apnea, MAOIs, chemical stimulants such as cocaine, methamphetamines etc., or pregnancy induced (Zerwekh, Claborn & Gaglione, 2006).
Obesity is a disease within many diseases with many varying causes. According to Ignatavicius and Workman (2006), an obese person weighs at least 20% above the upper limit of the normal range for ideal body weight and refers to an excessive amount of body fat in which can be distributed differently and cause an array of problems