Parkinson's Disease Essay

1454 Words 6 Pages
Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson 's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder that effects an individuals’ movement. It is both chronic, meaning it will continue over a long period of time and progressive, meaning its symptoms will become worse over time. Approximately one million adults in the USA are thought to live with Parkinson 's disease. Researchers believe that the disease may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Scientists have discovered some genetic mutations associated with Parkinson’s disease. Approximately 5-10% of patients suffer from a monogenic form of Parkinson disease where autosomal dominant mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, and VPS35 and autosomal recessive mutations in PINK1, DJ-1, and Parkin
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He identified the core features of the Parkinson’s disease such as tremor, impaired balance, slowness and stiffness. PD includes primary, secondary, and non-motor signs. Primary motor signs of Parkinson’s disease include tremor, Bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability. In the early stages of Parkinson, people may experience tremor in the hand or foot on one side of their body. Sometimes this tremor may be in the jaw or face. The tremor consists of shaking movement and appears when the individuals’ muscles are at rest. For example, when the person’s arm is held loosely at the side, the tremor may begin. It can become worse by excitement or stress. It is most noticeable sign of Parkinson’s disease. Bradykinesia is slowness of movement and reduction of spontaneous movement. It causes difficulty with repetitive movements such as finger tapping. Limitations of movement cause difficulty in performing everyday functions such as brush teeth, getting dressed and eating. Rigidity causes stiffness in the limbs, neck, and trunk of the body. It can be painful due to a stiffness and inability for limbs to relax. One of the most important symptoms of Parkinson’s is postural instability, which is the loss of reflexes needed for maintaining upright posture. …show more content…
Medications for Parkinson’s include dopamine precursors, which are substances such as levodopa that cross the blood-brain barrier to make dopamine and replenish the brain’s supply. Antidepressant drugs can be described for non-motor symptoms such as depression. Another drug that affects neurotransmitters in the body to ease some symptoms is anticholinergic drugs. Anticholinergic drugs decrease the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which can be effective for

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