Parkinson´s Disease: A Case Study Of Parkinson's Diseases

Superior Essays
Imagine a seed of an apple tree planted inside of ones’ brain- it starts off tiny until its growth encompasses the nerves of the entire body. The branches start to intertwine with the muscles and halt simple movements that one could once do. Their growth creates stiffness in the limbs while the trunk and the leaves soak up all of the dopamine in the brain. The apples are the lewy bodies (clumps in the brain). One never knew how this seed got planted or how it was attracted to their brain but it is there and the tree will never stop growing. Parkinson’s disease is that progressive and growing seed in the body- steadily affecting the nervous system that has no known cure or precise origin and can dramatically affect occupation. Parkinson’s disease …show more content…
They also do a physical and neurological examination along with studying signs and symptoms of patient. To rule out possibilities of additional conditions, doctors may order blood tests, MRI, ultrasound of brain, and PET scans (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015). There is no one diagnostic test for PD and mild cases in the first stage can go undiagnosed even by a skilled neurologist (PDF, 2016). Blood tests and other imaging tests are being researched for better diagnoses. There are scans that test dopamine levels and parts of the brain but are extremely expensive and hard to access (PDF, 2016). All symptoms of PD that are rated occur from the lack of dopamine in the brain. Lewy bodies also play a role in PD symptoms. They can be described as “clumps of specific substances within brain cells” (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015). According to scientists, the protein alpha-synuclein found in lewy bodies could be particular in the development of PD. Brain cells cannot break this protein down (leading to decreased motor control) so it is a major point of research for the disease (Mayo Clinic Staff, …show more content…
The main drug for PD is levodopa which helps the body produce chemicals that can convert to dopamine. There are numerous names for this drug such as: Madopar, Duodopa,, Sinemet, Lecado, and more. The most common side effects of the drug can be nausea, confusion, mood swings, hallucinations, and dizziness. MAO-B inhibitors and COMT inhibitors are both groups that are taken alongside of levodopa. MAO-B inhibitors should not be taken with antidepressants and can cause headaches, indigestion, flu symptoms, and depression. Dopamine agonists have a variety of names: Parlodel, Cabaser, Mirapexin, Requip, Neupro, etc. They act like dopamine to stimulate the nerve cells and a few side effects are: headaches, constipation, nausea, and drowsiness. Apomorphine is a group that is taken via injection. This drug is used if someone with PD does not respond to oral tablets or patches. There can be side effects of nausea and sickness. The fourth group is the glutamate agonists. It is common that these drugs are taken with another for PD and can create blurred vision, confusion, swelling of ankles, and fainting. Lastly, anticholinergics are less likely to be prescribed but can be useful for the early stage of PD and when the symptoms are mild. They can cause of multitude of problems like: confusion, blurred vision, and constipation which is a reason why they are not commonly used for PD (Parkinson’s UK,

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