Parkinson 's Disease Is The Second Most Common Neurodegenerative Disorder

1511 Words Nov 20th, 2016 7 Pages
Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder; it is responsible for the loss of dompaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (Kakkar, Bae). Nearly five million people are affected worldwide and around one million are affected in the United States alone (Kakkar). The symptoms vary from motor symptoms, bradykinesia, muscular ridgity, resting tremor, and postural impairment, to non-motor, depression and anxiety (Kakkar). Early indicators of the disease are usually psychiatric and sleep disturbances and/or olfactory dysfunctions (Kakkar). Symptoms rarely appear before an individual’s 50th decade; however, certain gene mutations such as the Parkin mutation can cause early onset of Parkinson’s (Lill). Parkin is the most common familial autosomal recessive mutation and is responsible for nearly 8.6% of early onset (Lill). The genes normal function is to encode a conserved ubiquitin E3 ligase (Stevely). Thus, a common characteristic of the null Parkin mutation is the rapid muscle degeneration which occurs due to mitochondria dysfunction (Stevely). Furthermore, there is evidence that indicates the spine and the muscles surrounding it may undergo more deformities when this specific mutation is present (Baer). Another mutation which causes Parkinson’s disease is the mutation in the LRRK2 gene. This gene is responsible for encoding a large protein with a leaucine-rich repeat domain, a RAS-like GTPase domain, WD-40 domain, and a kinase domain (Stevely).…

Related Documents