Parent Roles Of Prenatal Attachment

1650 Words 7 Pages
University of Connecticut

Introduction
Attachment is one of the developmental milestones that begins during conception and remains throughout one’s life. It is defined as the “strong affectionate tie we have for special people in our lives that lead us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress” (Berk, 264). When the child’s needs are met by an individual, attachment develops. The primary caregiver, preferably the mother, is considered to be the initial secure base. The emotional connection infants have towards their mother is what theorist Sigmund Freud believes to be the “foundation for all alter relationships” (Berk, 264). However, by the second half of
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Children are prone to inherit traits from their parents’ own childhood. According to Ainsworth, the quality of the parenting during the first year of life determines the type of attachment that is formed due more to nurture than to nature (Cook, 185). There are many studies that focus on the effects of parental roles towards the child-parent attachment. One study I found examined the relationship between maternal prenatal attachment and postnatal infant temperament. This study included forty mothers who were weeks away from giving birth. Using the Revised-Infant Temperament Questionnaire, the women recorded their child’s temperament four months later. The mother’s prenatal attachment is symbolic to the infant’s attachment and development. Limitations found were the overall sample size being small and the lack of measures used to assess. Positive parent-child relationships are beneficial towards the child, especially in a child-care or educational setting. Along with their temperament, children are capable of developing secure attachments with others. In a toddler study of how maternal behavior associates with children’s classroom aggression and relationships, findings associated with the profiles of parenting styles: sensitive, harsh and detached. Researchers used scales, surveys, a home observation and a Child Behavior Checklist to assess Early Head-Start children. They found that children from …show more content…
The four types of parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglecting. Children raised by authoritative parents are capable of developing a positive self-esteem and social skills when developing attachments and/or relationships with others. Children raised by any of the other three types of parenting styles can have difficulty developing relationships with people. As they get older, all aspects of development especially social decrease. These children either become anti-social or become friends with reckless individuals. Even though permissive parents share similar parental warmth traits to authoritative parents, they lack the parental control needed to raise their child. These parents “fail to set up or enforce appropriate limits” (Cook, 284). From infancy, if the parent-child attachment is damaging, it prevents the child from developing attachments towards

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