BPS (Behavioural Pain Scale) and critical care pain observation tools are more the most dependable and valid preferences for pain assessment. Moreover, an appropriate pain assessments tool should be utilised taking into consideration the patients ability to communication. Assessments should be conducted regularly as this has been shown to result in better pain control with more frequent adjustments to analgesic medication (Ramsden 2011)
Long term effects of unrelieved pain include increased length of stay in hospital and increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder after discharge Unrelieved pain is associated with adverse patient outcomes.
Management of pain improves patient’s outcomes whatever the clinical context. (Barr etal 2013, Macintyre etal, 2010)
In ICU environment effective pain management extends to an overall decrease in cost to the organisation as well a decrease in unplanned extubations, line removals, duration of Mechanical ventilation and length of stay in ICU, (Sessler 2009, Pedram 2009). Analysis’s can be administered through a variety of methods. IV bolus IV Patient controlled, IV continuous, Oral rectal, transdermal in haled (Siedlecki,