Ottoman Empire Constitutionalism

Improved Essays
During the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, two diverse constitutional revolutions occurred in the Middle East. Constitutionalism refers to parliamentary representation, constitutional government reform, and a method to challenge the absolute power of the monarch. This also includes the separation of powers or check and balances. The insurgency in the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Iran possessed various similarities and differences. Despite their questionable success, two constitutional revolutions altered the political sphere in the Middle East.
Several aspects caused the constitutional revolution in the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Iran. One external cause is the global economic crisis, which affected both the Ottoman Empire
…show more content…
The Babism movement prompted their participation in prospective revolts. Their participation in upheaval prompted a deliberate attitude for the cause. Bayat–Phillip indicates women initially “continued to assume a supporting role to their male leaders.” One could argue their participation involved approval and encouragement rather than protesting the cause. Upper class women created parties and tended to support their male counterpart. Their prominent participation in the revolution includes the right to education. Women defended their right to education by publicly speaking about their political thoughts. However, the male population reacted with hostility toward this concept of education for women. Despite their failed attempt to obtain rights, women participating in the nationalist movement displayed success. Furthermore, women resorted to physical and threatening methods to convey their discontent with the government. According to Bayat–Phillip, “Persian mothers, wives and daughters exhibited threateningly their revolvers, tore aside their veils, and confessed their decision to kill.” Political parties created by women do not necessarily represent larger communities within Qajar Iran. As previously stated, upper class women participated in the constitutional movement. Insurgency in the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Iran produced several …show more content…
Their objective is to reduce authority and create a secularized government. For Qajar Iran, the administration created additional political positions for the ulama. According to Abrahamian, “the electorate was divided into six estates: the princes, the Qajar tribe, the aristocracy, the ulama, landowners, merchants, and the guild.” Additionally, women received a dreadful result in regards to education. The male population demonstrated hostility toward the women. Disenfranchised groups also encountered a problematic situation. Constitutionalists disregarded the lower class and their obligation to the revolution. Consequently, “military leaders ruled the Ottoman Empire until the end of World War I” and the Russians removed the administration in Iran. Even though the uprisings constructed unfavorable consequences, constitutionalism during this period is

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    John Stewart Mill believed that the institution of the family was very corrupt because it was based on subordination and suppression of women. He believed that letting women vote would promote social strength and a moral regeneration (Document 1). Female political activist also fought for women’s rights by saying that, if women are nearly half of the population, excluding them from voting was a complete contradiction to the idea of universal suffrage (Document 2). Continuing with the idea of the expansion of universal suffrage, many people argued that allowing women to vote would broaden the base of democracy and weaken the traditional vices in European governments (Document 4). Many feminist groups emphasized the connection between domestic politics, society and the government.…

    • 822 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    New Woman Fiction Essay

    • 719 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The New Woman fiction of the 1880s and 1890s often expressed the displeasure with the contemporary status of women in marriage and in society. The novels portrayed their protagonists as unconventional and rebellious heroines who fought against the traditional Victorian male conception of females being an “angel in the house” and also challenged the traditional canon of morality and behavior. Many New Women novels strongly opposed the idea that home is the only proper place for a women to be. The themes of the novels were mostly comprised of marriage and sex as well as women’s desires of independence and satisfaction. Contemporary critics criticized the sexual content of New Woman novels and such ideas had become the foundation for public debate…

    • 719 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The several factors that led to this revolution and its impact on the history of England and elsewhere is discussed elaborately later in this project. EVENTS LEADING TO THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION AND END OF DIVINE RIGHT THEORY Political theory refers to the balance of power between the people and the state. Divine right rule that was prevailent in England was at an extreme example of the political theory. It was hence obvious that it was unsustainable unless the powers are divided between the people and state and an equilibrium is attained. And for this reason it wasn’t surprising to watch the slow demise of the divine right rule in different countries as people became better equipped with knowledge regarding their rights and duties.…

    • 6678 Words
    • 27 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    There is a major and distinct difference between being an overseer and a leader. Both are based on supremacy, but an overseer demand obsequious behavior while a leader earn trust through understanding others. During Tsar Nicholas II reign; he was known for being the last Romanov leaders. Tsar’s government held totally power, along with the inability to rule over Russia. Tsar was dethroned and later executed with his family for his poor judgement and Russia being in chaos.…

    • 1177 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    In the early 19th century, women were often thought as inferior to men due to their sentiment and irrationality. However, emerging feminist advocate Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women were not treated as rational beings because men would not allow them to have an education. She believed that women should have equal rights as men to prove that they were rational beings and not prone to sentiment. She wrote many works demonstrating her beliefs in hopes to evoke change for women’s rights. Mary Wollstonecraft’s political pamphlet, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and her novel, Maria both criticize men for using their desires to objectify women, thus preventing them from having any agency.…

    • 1683 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The crumbling army, food shortages, numerous uprisings, and taking away people’s right of speech and press in the proletariat class lead to a very successful February Revolution in 1917(Jerry and Ziegler, 1). In Iran, the Shah used a similar method of aloof leadership; he made ties with the West and tried to industrialize Iran. Iran rejected the idea of Westernization because of their disdain of the West caused by previous invasions by America (Michelle Gerken). Along with the Westernization, industrializing…

    • 1056 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    For revolutionaries, they were not concerned as to who was sitting on their throne, but they saw the Russian system as one that was by definition headed by a tyrant who was an oppressor of the people. Due to Nicholas II’s personal qualities, he was thought to be unfit to be the ideal monarch. Podbolotov does call attention to the fact that the objective circumstances of the era that ultimately prevented the Tsar from reigning “autocratically” were not taken into account by conservatives. Yet, Monarchists’ attempts to influence Nicholas collided with his lack of indifference and initiative, which were attributes that were deemed unsuitable for an autocrat. Podbolotov also explains that the criticism of the Tsar strengthened from the defeats in the Russo-Japanese War and the Tsar’s “childish desire” to conquer Manchuria.…

    • 789 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    2. Revolution Throughout history, numerous people have started revolutions in many ways by displaying progressive ideas and fighting for the liberal changes in their society. One such example is Olympe de Gouges, who courageously advocated for the rights of women in her writing “The Rights of Woman”. During Gouges’ time, women were living by social standards that made them inferior to men. In hopes of influencing the public with her notions and showing support for the females, Gouges, despite being too radical for her period, changed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen to support the rights of both genders.…

    • 1135 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    She made several points and poked fun on how the Antis are against women voting and having a place in politics. According to them from Howes perspective “woman suffrage is simply a reform against nature!” (Howe). Antis felt Enfranchisement and banding together is what makes men men and disenfranchisement is what makes women women. Women were viewed as practically incompetent, ignorant, delicate, catty, weak and impulsive. It was looked at by the Antis that if women =would enfranchise and be allowed to vote that they would neglect their homes, abandon their families and spend all their time at the polls even though the polls are only open once a year.…

    • 691 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Taking an active role against the fight of oppression by Great Britain, many women transformed from mere homely, fair minded ladies to Patriot women. Supporting the boycott of tea and other items taxed by the Townshend Act of 1767 female patriots were urged to take an active participation in the boycott. Uncharacteristically receiving public praise for their unified actions. Norton notes, "For women to be told, even in an obvious hyperbole, that their activities could be more important to America 's future than the efforts of male committees and congresses, represented an extraordinary departure from the past American devaluation of the feminine role (pg. 159)" Their voice in public policy and patriotic work for the common good marked a turning point in American women 's…

    • 1113 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays