February 04, 2013
Organizational Effectiveness Every company has a set of goals designed to lead the organization in a specific direction. To achieve these goals, managers should train employees to follow a specific path or set of rules that will lead to organizational effectiveness. The measurement of effectiveness is achieved through completion of the organization's goals. To understand organizational effectiveness in any setting, one must define it according to the goals of the organization. In a criminal justice environment, managers must apply various organizational effectiveness theories appropriately to measure the effectiveness of the department.
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Better pay and benefits along with the desire to grow relationships with other officers motivates police officers to do the job. Eagan (2008) suggested that more than one need could be motivating for people: Proposing an “ERG Theory” (Existence-Relatedness-Growth), Alderfer said much of what Maslow suggested; however, he felt that more than one need could be pursued simultaneously and that if one is unable to reach a higher-level need the desire to satisfy the lower level need will probably increase. For example, if one cannot achieve a promotion, emphasis may be given to generating more income in the current position. (p. 9) In a criminal justice setting, process theories concentrate on what motivates officers to do the job. The operant conditioning theory is one example of the process theory and how officers gain motivation to do the job. Similar to Pavlov's classical conditioning theory, Skinner suggests through the operant conditioning theory that a person learns a positive reward occurs when a person takes a specific action. Therefore, if that person takes that action, positive rewards will continue to occur and negative consequences will not happen. According to Johnson (2011), " When officers perceive a reward can be obtained for issuing citations, or removed for not issuing citations, they are likely to respond in ways that bring benefits rather