Substitution Errors

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Second, substitution errors affect the place and manner of articulation. It was found that sounds produced in the front of the mouth (p,b) were less prone to errors compared to sounds produced in the middle or back of the mouth, like /g/ (Gold, 1978). Phonemes in the front of the mouth are more visible compared to phonemes in the back of the mouth. Substitution errors in the manner of articulation relate to nasal-oral substitution. Nasality is one component that affects hearing-impaired children. Nasalization problems occur because of poor velopharnygeal closure. For example, to produce an /n/, the port must be open. To produce a /d/, the port must remain closed. Nasal errors are considered to be “a segmental problem as well as a problem …show more content…
When being compared to typically developing children, cochlear implant children frequently struggle to produce /dʒ / and /tʃ/ (affricates) in the final position of words due to its complex manner. For example, if someone tries to say the word ‘pitch,’ the /tʃ/ will be distorted. Phonemes that can be prolonged and made louder are easer for cochlear implanted children to acquire. However, implementation after two years greatly improved the children’s phonological development and showed progress in consonant acquisition (Ertmer, Kloiber, Jung, Kirleis and Bradford, …show more content…
It was found that children “initiate phonation at too low a level of vital capacity and also that they produce a reduced number of syllables per breath. The second problem is that they mismanage the volume of air by inappropriate valving at the laryngeal level” (Osberger and McGarr, 1982). Inappropriate laryngeal gestures made it difficult to differentiate between voice and voiceless cognates (such as p,b). Furthermore, high speech laryngeal films have also provided “evidence of abnormal laryngeal function in hearing-impaired speakers (Metz,Whitehead & Mahshie,1982).” These films reveal that children are not positioning their vocal folds appropriately before the onset of phonation. In one hearing-impaired child, a “high amount of medial compression on the arytenoid cartilages was observed and only the anterior one-third of the folds vibrated freely” (Osberger and McGarr, 1982). The films also exposed the inappropriate add/abduction in VCV utterance when C was voiceless. This is all due to difficulty of the larynx and its control and coordination.
Additionally, poor control of fundamental frequencies can cause many problems like a high pitch and intonation with excessive and insufficient variability. Atypical voice characteristics may also be present such as breathiness, harshness and hyper/hypo nasality. Lastly, the speech intelligibility of hearing impaired children

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