Oliver Cromwell's Impact On The Civil War

Better Essays
Oliver Cromwell was an English soldier and statesman who led parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars. He was lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658 during the republican Commonwealth. …show more content…
However, during the first three years he was chiefly absorbed in campaigns against the Royalists in Ireland and Scotland. He also had to suppress a mutiny, inspired by a group known as Levellers, a Puritan group aimed at "levelling" between rich and poor, in the Commonwealth army. Detesting the Irish as primitive, savage, and superstitious, he believed they had carried out a huge massacre of English settlers in 1641. As commander in chief and lord lieutenant, he waged a ruthless campaign against them. On his return to London in May 1650 Cromwell was ordered to lead an army to Scotland, where Charles II had been acknowledged as its new king. Fairfax refused the command; so on June 25 Cromwell was appointed captain general in his place. He felt tender toward the Scots, most of whom were fellow Puritans, than toward the Catholic Irish. The campaign proved difficult, and during the winter of 1650 Cromwell was taken ill. But he defeated the Scots with an army inferior in numbers at Dunbar on September 3, 1650, and a year later, when Charles II advanced into England, Cromwell destroyed his army at Worcester. (Smith, 1991 & Sherwood, …show more content…
Now Cromwell hoped for pacification, a political settlement, and social reform. The army believed that the members of Parliament were corrupt and that a new Parliament should be called. Once again Cromwell tried to mediate between the two antagonists, but his sympathies were with his soldiers. When he finally came to the conclusion that Parliament must be dissolved and replaced, he called in his musketeers and on April 20, 1653, expelled the members from the House. He said they were "corrupt and unjust men and scandalous to the profession of the Gospel"; two months later he set up a nominated assembly to take their place. In a speech on July 4 he told the new members that they must be just, and, "ruling in the fear of God," resolve the affairs of the

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    A civil war was fought because of the king’s unconstitutional acts, but later became a dispute over the powers of the crown and Parliament. In order to increase the Roundheads’ chances of victory, Colonel Thomas Pride led his troops in the English House of Commons and removed one hundred Royalist and Presbyterians who were accused of siding with Charles I and were also seen as unreliable in the army. By the end of the English Civil War, the Roundheads obtained victory. Oliver Cromwell was convinced monarchy was not needed in England. He forced Parliament into trying, convicting, and executing King Charles I for “treason against the people” because Charles I was personally responsible for the outbreak of the Second Civil War (“English Civil War”).…

    • 1406 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    England was on the brink of civil war. Both sides used propaganda to promote their causes. Parliament demanded the king to give up control of the armed forces to them. When the king wouldn’t agree, they passed the ‘militia ordinance,’ and took it from him. It was only the beginning of political upheaval in England.…

    • 1543 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Scotland was a distinct kingdom ruled by the MacAlpin clan in the early tenth century without defined boarders. Without defined boarders relations with England were very uneasy, although after 1066 Norman kings intervened periodically to help support the claims of the Scottish against them. In 1291 Edward I of England selected John Balliol to take the Scottish throne which had been empty since 1286, in return Balliol paid homage to Edward I as a vassal. In 1295 Scottish nobles signed a treaty with France which resulted in the Auld Alliance. As a result of this Edward I invaded Scotland in 1296, Balliol surrendered and imprisoned.…

    • 1856 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In the winter of 1648-9, King Charles I was executed and monarchy and the House of Lords was abolished. After the King was executed, Cromwell tried to bring the original group of “Royal Independents” back together, but failed. In the winter of 1653, Oliver was promoted to “Lord Protector,” which was the head of state. He aspired to bring back stability and peace. When he was offered the English crown in 1657, he refused to accept…

    • 1111 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Beginning in 1642, The English Civil War, as known as the Great Rebellion, was made up of three different outbreaks. The Great Rebellion consisted of King Charles I going to battle with Parliament. Battle began as the outcome of a fray over the power of the rights of Parliament and rule of the Crown (“English Civil Wars” 1). Throughout the early stages of war, the people of Parliament were set on seeing Charles I as king, but widened powers for Parliament. Setting the tone, the Royalists started winning victories in the premier phases of the English Civil War, but the Parliamentarians, people of Parliament, conclusively successed.…

    • 1112 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    This was known as the “Complaint of the Poor Commons of Kent.” One of the demands on their list was too bring back Richard of Your back from Ireland to England, but King Henry never agreed to it. This started the rivalry between the York’s and Lancaster’s which would last for 30 years. In 1452 Richard had return to England. In 1454 Henry went mad and was left paralyzed and unable to reign. While King Henry was sick Richard became Lord Protector of England but in 1453 Queen Margaret had given birth to Henry’s only son which reduced Richard’s hold of the throne.…

    • 949 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Oliver Cromwell Legend

    • 1280 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The legend of Oliver Cromwell is shrouded in mystery; however, there is some certainty in the story. He made his mark during the turbulent English Civil War– the bloody conflict between Parliamentarians and Monarchists in the seventeenth century that started after the execution of King Charles I. Soon thereafter, Cromwell took the lead on the side of the Parliament, and help secure victory. He assumed the title “Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland” and became the new monarch of England. Oliver Cromwell ruled from then until his death in 1658 of natural causes, which was celebrated with a Grand funeral.…

    • 1280 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The failures of Oliver Cromwell brought a relapse of the Stuart dynasty, of what he had once tried to eliminate. Even though he ended the rule of Charles I of England, in the end his strict governing led to the rebellion of the English people against him. This led to Charles II, Charles I’s son, to rule, in a way, relapsing his father’s rule. Oliver Cromwell’s main purpose of the disposal of the king Charles I was he was ruling England as a absolutist; although, that is what Oliver Cromwell himself ended up doing during his reign of power of the country of England. During the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell was a strong soldier, but a deficient ruler of the people.…

    • 1082 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    He had to ask Parliament to punish Massachusetts. They punished Massachusetts by passing the Coercive Acts, or also known as the Intolerable Acts in 1774. The Intolerable Act had different effects. Boston Harbor was closed until Boston paid for the tea that was thrown out of the ships, The Massachusetts Charter was canceled, Royal Officials accused of crimes would be sent to England for trial, The Quartering Act forced colonist to house and supply British soldiers, and General Thomas Gage became the new governor of Massachusetts. These acts basically made the colonist pissed off.…

    • 1502 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The execution of Charles I led to the resolved issue of the differing views between the parliamentarians about Charles I. After finding out Charles has secretly been raising a Catholic army to resume the war against Parliament, Charles I put on trial treason and was later executed after going against Parliament rule. The main political change that resulted was that the English monarch could govern without Parliament's permission. This main issue that resulted from the civil wars was that England was now known a republic and was ruled by Oliver Cromwell. The new government finally stated that power was controlled by the…

    • 503 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays