Ocean Acidification Effect

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Ocean Acidification-Effect on Squid
Ocean acidification is a direct result of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide CO2 concentration due different type of human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation (Halpern). The world’s ocean surfaces have gradually become more acidic due to absorption of excess anthropological carbon emissions throughout history. Since the Industrial Revolution during 19th century, the carbon dioxide level has been dramatically increasing. In addition, the CO2 concentration level has reached a constant of 280 ppm during Pre-Industrial and will reach 700ppm by the year of 2060 under the projections (Cooley). Figure 1 shows that as the carbon dioxide levels increase in ocean, the pH level decrease.
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A study found that the squid are vulnerable to the acidic conditions, and may face greater challenges to survival if this condition continues to amplify (Lacoue-Labarthe). The question is that how ocean acidification affects on the squid population. However, the answer might not be easy since there is a limited number of studies that have investigated squid response to the level of pH in ocean. There are many studies have shown that the most effect species are calcifying organisms at the bottom of the food chain are prey for marine organisms in higher trophic levels. Reducing the pH level in ocean also decrease the availability of dissolved carbonate ion necessary for shell formation. However, lower the pH level will have huge impact on their egg-developing stage. Impact on the early life history is the biggest concern since “[the] young animals may not be as resilient to physiological stress as juveniles or adult…in addition, early exposure of estuarine fish larvae to elevated pCO2 reduced survival and larvae length, in which raise concern as recruitment cohorts lay the foundation for population success” (Kaplan, et al). One suggestion is that the squid raised in more highly acidified ocean water, their eggs hatch more slowly and also smaller under the elevated pH level. The …show more content…
If ocean acidification affect the number of squid special can also influences the fisheries as squid. Many squid species are supporting the productive fisheries, and there is about three million per year of squid are catch globally (Halpern). If there were decreased in the number of squid, this could be a negative impact on the commercial species that feed on it. California is the largest fishery for squid in the united state, it provide 25 million dollars in revenue during 2008 (California Department of Fish and Game). We can expect that the declines the number of squid populations will have drastic consequences for squid fisheries and also very important to California. Historically, the worldwide demand for all squid species has increased after 1950’s and California become the largest squid export station in the U.S; however, the number of squid that available to the market is related to the environmental factor. Other than ocean acidification, it also relate to water temperature and nutrient availability (opc.ca.gov). Those factors not just control the number of squid, but also use to determine the sustainability of the squid population in the

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