Ocea 10 Essay

1338 Words Oct 28th, 2013 6 Pages
Chapter 5: Water and Seawater

Review Questions (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17)
2. Describe what condition exists in water molecules to make them dipolar. The bent geometry of water molecule gives a slight overall negative charge to the side of the oxygen atom and a slight overall positive charge to the side of the hydrogen atom. This slight separation of charge gives the entire molecule an electrical polarity so water molecules are dipolar.
4. How does hydrogen bonding produce the surface tension phenomenon of water? Surface tension results from the formation of hydrogen bonds between the outermost layer of water molecules and the underlying molecules. Water’s ability to form hydrogen bonds causes it to have highest
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This is the amount of heat that must be added to 1 gram of a substance at its boiling point to break the intermolecular bonds and complete the change of state from liquid to vapor.
9. Why is the latent heat of vaporization so much greater than the latent heat of melting? The latent heat of vaporization so much greater than the latent heat of melting because to go from a solid to a liquid, just enough hydrogen bonds must be broken to allow water molecules to slide past one another; and to go from a liquid to a gas, however, all of the hydrogen bonds must be completely broken so that individual water molecules can move about freely.
10. Describe why heat energy absorbed by the Earth’s low-latitude-regions is transferred to heat-deficient high latitudes through a process that uses water’s latent heat of evaporation. At ocean surface temperatures, individual molecules converted from the liquid to the gaseous state have less energy that do water molecules at 100 degrees Celsius. To gain the additional energy necessary to break free of the surrounding ocean water molecules, an individual molecule must capture heat energy from its neighbors. On other words, the molecules left behind have lost heat energy to those that evaporate, which explains the cooling effect of evaporation. It takes more that 540 calories of heat to produce 1 gram of water vapor from the ocean surface at temperatures less than 100 degrees Celsius. At higher temperatures, liquid water

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