Objectiveism In Society

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Sociologists have been arguing for a long time the possibility of studying society objectively. A society consists of a group of people living together to some extend in an organised way (Pathak, 2007: 86). Together, they make decisions to how things will be done and divide the responsibilities. The question is wether a society could be studied objectively. Objectivity is the state or quality of being unbiased or fair (Megill, 1994: 2). The positivists, including Emilie Durkhiem and Comte believe that a society could be studied with fair and unbiased way (Adam, 2001: 116). However, the anti-positivist consider that the society could never be interoperated in an objective way (Tharakan, 2006: 22). This essay will examine both the positivist …show more content…
On the counter argument, the positivist’s perceptive argues that society could be studied objectively (Adam, 2001:116). Sociologists like Durkheim and Comte state that social science can be rational, empirical, objective, value neutral, and testable (Hutcheon, 2011) . In addition, they explain that the results concluded are empirically tested and universal (Llewellyn, Agu & Mercer, 2008: 30). In Durkheim’s book ‘The Rules of Sociological Method’ (1982), he claimed, “[This] is a category of facts which present very special characteristics: they consist of manners of acting, thinking and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him” (Durkheim,1982: 21). First, what is a social fact? Durkheim is talking about facts, ideas, supposition that are not explained by one’s responses, but people’s result of a particular action (Durkheim,1982: 21). In addition, social facts are ‘external to individuals’, which means that they are anything …show more content…
Howard Becker, and American sociologist agrees that sociology should be value free but it is impossible to do this (Becker,1970: 92). In addition, he states that it is impossible to research to come up with a theory without adding personal and political beliefs (Becker,1970: 93). In his book ‘telling about society’ he states that the sociological theories used today are debatable because they are not value free (Becker, 2007: 124). Next, he uses himself as an example, where is states that his theory ‘Interactionist View of Deviance’ is influenced by political views (Marked by Teacher: Sociology, 2014). In addition, he states that another sociologist would achieve different results. Modern anti-positivists include Maria Miles and Ray Pawson, who state that older theories are not value free because they are sexist and biased (May, 2001: 13). The two sociologist argue that as a result of a male dominant world, all theories are to please the men (May, 2001: 13). They add that the theories were only conducted and tested on men but still apply to both (Marked by Teacher: Sociology, 2014). Ray Pawson disagrees with the fact that the theories could apply to both genders and states that the only way society could be studied objectively is by becoming unbiased and fair (May, 2001: 13). Therefore, according to the modern sociologist it is impossible

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