Nu-545 Unit 1 Essay

5499 Words Sep 15th, 2013 22 Pages
1. What is metabolic absorption?
“All the cells take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings. Cells of the intestine and the kidney are specialized to carry out absorption. Cells of the kidney tubules reabsorb fluids and synthesize proteins. Intestinal epithelial cells reabsorb fluids and synthesize protein enzymes” (McCance & Huether, pg. 2).

2. What uses oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms in an oxidative reaction?
“Peroxisomes are so named because they usually contain enzymes that use oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction that produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (McCance & Huether, pg. 7).

3. During cell injury what is released that is capable of cellular auto
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The best example of metaplasia is replacement of normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial [airway] lining by the stratified squamous epithelial cells [figure 2-6]. The newly formed squamous epithelial cells do not secrete mucus or have cilia, causing loss of vital protective mechanism” (McCance & Huether, pg. 50).

18. What is the relation between ischemia and ATP?
“The abrupt lack of contraction is caused by a rapid decrease in mitochondrial phosphorylation, which results in insufficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) productions. Lack of ATP leads to an increase in anaerobic metabolism, which generates ATP from glycogen when there is insufficient oxygen” (McCance & Huether pg. 53).

19. When does sodium enter the cell and cause swelling?
“A reduction in ATP levels causes the plasma membrane’s sodium-potassium (Na+, K) pump and sodium-calcium exchange and diffusion of potassium out of the cell. Sodium and water then can enter the cell freely, and cellular swelling results” (McCance & Huether, pg. 53).

20. What are free radicals in relation to cell damage? Progression of diseases?
“A free radical is an electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron. Free radicals are difficult to control and initiate chain reactions. Because of our understanding of free radicals, a growing number of diseases and disorders have been linked either directly or indirectly to these reactive

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