Notes on Colonialism and Imperialism Essay

1487 Words Apr 12th, 2013 6 Pages
Chapter 33 Notes * Foundations of empire * Motives of imperialism * Modern imperialism * Refers to domination of industrialized countries over subject lands * Domination achieved through trade, investment, and business activities * Two types of modern colonialism * Colonies ruled and populated by migrants * Colonies controlled by imperial powers without significant settlement * Economic motives of imperialism * European merchants and entrepreneurs made personal fortunes * Overseas expansion for raw materials: rubber, tin, copper, petroleum * Colonies were potential markets for industrial products * Political motives * Strategic purpose: harbors and supply stations for industrial …show more content…
settled first by Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) in seventeenth century * By 1800 was a European settler colony with enslaved black African population * British seized Cape Colony in early nineteenth century, abolished slavery in 1833 * British-Dutch tensions led to Great Trek of Afrikaners inland to claim new lands * Mid-nineteenth century, they established Orange Free State in 1854, Transvaal in 1860 * Discovery of gold and diamonds in Afrikaner lands; influx of British settlers * Boer War, 1899-1902: British defeated Afrikaners, Union of South Africa * The Berlin Conference, 1884-1885 * European powers set rules for carving Africa into colonies * Occupation, supported by European armies, established colonial rule in Africa * By 1900 all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, was controlled by European powers * Colonial rule challenging and expensive * "Concessionary companies": granted considerable authority to private companies * empowered to build plantations, mines, railroads * made use of forced labor and taxation, as in Belgian Congo * unprofitable, often replaced by more direct rule * Direct rule: replacing local rulers with Europeans--French model * justified by "civilizing mission" * hard to find enough European personnel * Indirect rule: control over subjects through local institutions--British model * worked best in African societies that were highly organized * assumed firm tribal

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