Nile Delta Geology

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Chapter One

Geology of Nile Delta of Egypt

Introduction

Egypt is about 1001449 Km², located in the Northern corner of Africa. Nile Delta is controlled with Nile river branches. Nile river is about 6825 Km long. It Extends from Latitude 4° S to 31° N from Ethiopia, Kenyan plateau and African highland to the Mediterranean sea. It’s the longest river in the world. Without Nile River and its valley Fig. (1.1) Egypt is mainly a desert country ( Sestini ,1995)
The present Nile Delta region is about 23000 Km2 and it is one of the largest delta in the world. Its slope direction is toward north with average slope about one meter every 10 km. Its elevation varies from about 18 m above sea level in Cairo to about 180 Km South of Nile Delta and
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Many of scientific papers were published to study Nile Delta area such as Sandford and Arkell (1929) who stated that the "Nile Delta area was wider than at present , and its margin extended towered east till Suez Canal and toward west to covered Wadi Elnatrun (Western Desert). Also the present delta is a part of older Delta, In 1960 Oil companies started drilling several deep wells in Nile Delta area searching for oil and natural gas.

Nile Delta is about 270 Km wide at the shore line and only 16 km in the south. The subsurface Geology of the Nile Delta was studied only through geophysical data and the drilled wells. Rizzni et al (1978) defined three sedimentary cycles within Delta region from Mid-Miocene to Helocene . Sestini(1976) ,Zaghloul et al (1976) discussed the geomorphology and history of the Nile Delta . Said (1981) gave a explanation of the Nile River and its Delta. In order to study the subsurface geology of Nile Delta 18 Deep wells and regional grid of seismic lines were used. The wells data were tied with seismic sections using seismic wave velocity and synthetic seismograms and also seismic refractors were used to interpret the structure and
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A similar depth to basement was estimated in the eastern extension of the Delta and in northern Sinai through their north-west and south-east structural cross sections based on reflection and refraction seismic shooting and well data. Abu Shagar (2002), found the depth to basement surface 11 Km from gravity data interpretation. So, from all previous studies, we can conclude that the depth of basement is between 1.8 Km to reach about 10 Km (North). See Fig

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