Anton Cancer: A Case Study

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Since time immemorial microorganisms have played a significant role in the life of mankind owing to the production of the myriad enzymes and secondary compounds that they synthesize (Demain 1981). These micro organism live in a highly diverse environment ranging from hot springs to deep ocean sediments. In the hyper diverse environment where one can find a specialized and unique biological niche is the intracellular space between cells of higher plants acts as suite and supports the growth of microbes and the one which grows there is called as endophytes (Strobel and Daisy 2003).

 Endophytes
The word endophyte literally means “In the plant” (Gr. endon = within; phyton = plant).The German plant pathologist, Anton
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Based on the data reported by the world health organization’s cancer control program, approximately 11 million people are diagnosed with cancer every year, so if this rate continues then, by 2020 there will be around 16 million new cases of cancer every year (sunil kumar deshmukh and shilpa verekar 2014). Cancer is a multifactorial disease caused due to hormonal and metabolic imbalances, changing lifestyle, nutrition, global warming genetic aberration/changes and infections (Maurya 2011). Most of previous chemical anticancer drugs exhibits nonspecific toxicity to normal growing cells, possess lot of side effects, and are ineffective against many types of cancer (Strobel 1997). Thus for effective treatment of cancer one must develop new improved diagnostic technique so that earlier detection and more accurate treatment can be done at an initial stage of cancer. Recently due to technological advancement we could get a better insight about the genetics and molecular biological aspect of cancer, which in turn have led to increased identification of potential molecular targets for anticancer drug discovery and development (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011). Since synthetic chemicals causes enormous side effects researchers from world wide are on the lookout for alternative drugs from natural products produced by plants and microorganisms which can be used as an anticancer agent. Recent findings have indicated that endophytes produces various secondary metabolites which have anticancerous

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