Neo Constructivism Analysis

Great Essays
Charley Du
Prof. Peter Katzenstein
GOVT 1817
Nov. 17 2015
Neo-Constructivism: The Propagation of Domestic Politics onto the International Stage
The Cuban Missile Crisis is, for many, one single incident the Cold War in which the threat of a nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated the closest to the point of no return. The end of the incident during the presidency of John F. Kennedy inspired a general change in attitudes from both the American and Soviet sides that they never want to come that close again. In the decades that followed, much has been written about the causes of the so called “crisis” and whether the United States had compelling reason to act when faced with evidence that the Soviet Union was installing
…show more content…
He starts his argument by saying that analysts look at world events through “conceptual lenses,” preconceived notions and ideas of relative importance that impact their thoughts and conclusions. This point was important to make because at the time of his writing, the dominant international relations theory was systemic realism, which is extremely similar to Allison’s Rational Policy Model. Allison, however, criticizes the Rational Policy Model because it treats nations as “black boxes” without a differentiated decision-making structure and bureaucracy. In his argument, Allison claims that there are variations of the Rational Policy Model which considers the national leaders, their interests as well as different actors, such as parties, within a government. The aforementioned variations are differentiated from Allison’s alternative models, which he terms the Organizational Process Model and Bureaucratic Politics Model. In the Organizational Process Model, the analyst confronts different organizations within a government and the behavior of those particular organizations whereas in the Bureaucratic Politics Model, the analyst sees the reasoning and perceptions of important players involved in an international decision. After further analysis of …show more content…
A criticism specific to Allison is his treatment and division of different models in his essay. The Rational Policy Model, Allison claims, focuses on “acts of nations,” effectively removing internal decision making processes from the international arena. However, when he proceeds to illustrate the model using the Cuban Missile Crisis, Allison adds the caveat that the “pure” Rational Policy Model can have variants. Furthermore, he discusses the different ways in which these variants can affect international relations by dividing them into three obscure categories, when the national actor’s choice is taken, when the national actor’s personal or party values are maximized, and when there are several actors and the winning actor’s values are maximized. The variants to the Rational Policy Model do not view states as “black boxes” as Allison previously argued. Using the same model, whereas the President’s role is rendered obsolete in the “pure” model, it is given some relevance in the variants. Allison’s nuanced approach to how the three types of variants differ is also perplexing. Not only is domestic politics—in Allison’s case, “Hawks and Doves”—given a role in international relations, so are national leaders and human nature. Thus, Allison’s

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Despite the origins and use of this ideology benefitting several accounts in International Relations, Morgenthau’s ideology is an archaic example of how society crumbles. This article is flawed because states do not solely act on self-interest anymore, society cannot be broken down…

    • 1121 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However, realism provides that states are constantly acting to maintain a balance of power, which would not allow for a peaceful unipolar system (M and A). Additionally, the events that occurred during the Cold War lead to consequences that must be attributed to individual actors rather than the state as a whole. In the Bay of Pigs invasion, US troop in Cuba were defeated after 2 days, leading to an embarrassing shortcoming of the United States government. This broke all diplomatic ties between the United States and Cuba, and it strengthened the relationship between Khrushchev and Castro which lead to increasing tensions between the United States and Soviet Union. This greatly escalated hostility among the actors involved in the Cold War, and can event be attributed to the individual actions of JFK and Eisenhower.…

    • 797 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Liberalism Vs Realism

    • 1413 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The similarities between the two main theories enable a less complex explanation of international relations. Both the Liberalism theory and the Realism theory share views on the anarchical structure of global politics, the rationality of human beings, and the importance of state actors. One of the main similarities between the two theories that affects the way that states should act, is how they see the world structure. In this anarchical world, states should find ways to survive. How the state itself will do that signifies a major difference between Realism and Liberalism.…

    • 1413 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Gramsci doesn’t degrade domination just to the direct one(physical force) but also includes indirect domination (cultural hegemony) I linked Thachil’s article to Gramsci’s idea of organic crisis if BJP couldn’t find a strategy to satisfy the interests of its elite core maybe as Gramsci suggested this could become “the crisis of the ruling class’s hegemony which occurs because ruling class has failed in some major political undertaking for which it has requested…” (p.252) BJP was able to adapt itself to new tasks and new epochs. Gramsci looks at the hegemony from a national perspective. In the World Bank reading, international system is discussed in the context of hegemony because as we know that institutions such as the World Bank and IMF are very useful tools to spread US/Western hegemony to the world. Although they deny the fact that they are guided by political objectives, studies like this one support the opposite idea. Hegemony is not just about hard power in this case hegemony is a soft power that uses indirect means to increase its power relative to others.…

    • 953 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Esteemed political theorist Michael Oakeshott has had a profound influence on political discussion, especially in his critique of rational thought. In his essay, “Rationalism In Politics and Other Essays,” Oakeshott takes a particular look at a purely rationalist political thinker, arguing that practical knowledge must not be entirely pushed aside by those in favor of technical knowledge in politics. In the critique, Oakeshott also jabs at another prominent political philosopher, Friedrich Hayek. Hayek’s works are filled with criticism of governments which interfere with an individual’s economic freedom and liberty, yet he seems to show some contradiction in his assertions, as pointed out by Oakeshott. In doing so, Oakeshott argues that since…

    • 1684 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Great Essays

    Introduction: The Neorealist theory Kenneth Waltz in his book «Theory of International Politics» introduced the idea of neorealist theory. The theory can determine a state behavior and state interaction by using the structure. This structure is defined by the complex of some principles of the international system such as anarchy and the states' capabilities. Not only military power and the ability to use it with regard to other states are significant in the neorealism theory but also the combination of states' capabilities is one main part of this theory in International Relation. Undoubtedly, power is able to give too much to each state due to the fact that it can determine a position of the country on the international level.…

    • 1542 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Fred Fleitz Analysis

    • 791 Words
    • 4 Pages

    A liberalist could also see that America 's continuous involvement before with the bush administration was actually what was hurting the balance of power and Obama taking steps towards being less involved could help. Obama has been left to clean up what the Bush administration left and has taken action to not waste American lives on the ground and has tried another, less direct, approach. It completely agreeable that conflict happens but a liberal would agree that peace is achievable and the steps that need to be taken to get there can not be as enforcing as ones to achieve complete power. Another attack like 9/11 could happen but from a liberal standpoint one could gather that the world has moved past that and global security is moving towards a more peaceful future as Obama has gone 7 years without war. Fleitz makes a comment that Syria talks have been overshadowed because it legitimized the US 's interference in Syria and Iraq.…

    • 791 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    On October 28, 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis brought the United States closer than it ever did before to a nuclear war. It was a pivotal moment in the Cold War. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a thirteen-day confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union lasting from October 15 to October 28 over missiles deployed in Cuba by the Soviet Union. This event taught the U.S. to face the horrible possibility that they and their world might cease to exist on the morrow. Back in 1959, Cuba’s revolutionary war made it a tiny communist country right near the U.S. shore.…

    • 1569 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    On Monday, October 22, 1962, John F. Kennedy announced to the public that nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union was an impending possibility. In what would come to be known as one of the most daunting presidential addresses during the Cold War, Kennedy informed the public that there was a series of offensive missile sites on the island of Cuba, which had been placed there by the Soviet Union. Kennedy went on to inform his audience that the Soviet Union had been ordered to remove all the missiles from Cuba and a quarantine had been placed on the island. The media played a large role in the Cuban Missile Crisis, mostly working behind the scenes. They worked to publicize President Kennedy’s public address, allowed the two…

    • 761 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Interdependence Theory

    • 1968 Words
    • 8 Pages

    It was written, to guide readers through learning theoretical tools that will guide individuals to understand the world more accurately. The theoretical tool they used to base their argument was the Liberalist theory, however, the focused one of the theories major points, which is interdependence. Even though, the authors tried to explain interdependence as a theory on its own, one cannot deny this theory has deep seeded origins from the Liberalist theory. They clearly state that neither the traditionalist vision nor the modernist vision is nowadays adequate to interpret our world, due to the fact that there is an “ever- growing and multidimensional interdependence”. Another interesting feature of this book is that the authors compare two ideal types: realism and one that they constructed, complex interdependence.…

    • 1968 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Great Essays