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Nature VS Nurture – Are Criminals Born or Made?
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The search for causes of crime forms the basis of most criminological studies. There are numerous explanations for crime: psychological, evolutionary, genetical,
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Based on behavioural psychology, Sutherland (1939), a prominent social learning theorist, then put forth the theory of Differential Association where criminal behaviours are learned through interaction with intimate personal groups in a process of communication. When criminal behaviours are learned, the learning includes techniques of committing the crime, and the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favourable or unfavourable and a person becomes delinquent when there is an excess of definitions favourable to violation of law over definitions unfavourable to violation of the law. Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. Another sociological theory in the Nurture camp of thought is the Social Reaction Theory. It could be said that a person’s environment depends to a certain extent on their own choice (Horwitz, Christiansen, 1983). However, there are also some individuals within certain areas who are drawn into crime (McGuire, Mason, O’Kane, 2000). A case in which the latter