This is the awakening of a new era in natural philosophy supported in the Islamic empire that affects social structures, cultures and attitude towards learning. One may ask, how do the features of my society explain its achievements in natural philosophy? And, how did Al-Kindi and Averroes change the course of history in natural philosophy? While it seems like the days of enlightenment in natural philosophy have slowed as a result of upheaval in kingdoms because of warfare and economic collapses in Europe and the Middle-East. However, circumstances are less severe in Islamic empire that now stretches from North Africa and Spain to India. In the discussion of natural philosophy credit goes to the influential works of Aristotle and Plato,
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171). When there is freedom to gain knowledge and religious persecution is not extreme, it is safe to say Islamic empire has people from variety of demography living in harmony. In the Islamic empire there was religious tolerance (Ede & Cormack, p. 77) writes, “The ‘People of the book’ those who shared the Old Testament as a foundational religious document, were officially tolerated by Islamic rulers”.
The social hierarchy in the Islamic empire has kingdoms that functions like any other kingdom but with a strong religious union. Islamic empire has been the most active empire in human history to accumulate knowledge from all over the world. In Europe there is a different situation as described by (Ede & Cormack, p. 75), “fall of Rome disrupted all aspects of life in Europe. The physical destruction of war and economic collapse destroyed many collections of texts, educational institutions fell into ruins”. This kind of situation disrupts the social structure and the effects are also felt in the neighbouring Islamic empire because of the constant wars between the empires and kingdoms in the region.
The representatives and scholars of Islamic empire have accumulated mass resources of information and books on natural philosophy and translated to Arabic and Latin to be studied by philosophers and scholars. Islamic philosophers are contributing much to the