Native Language Essay
L1: First Language, implicitly is the language first acquired or native language, and as stated previously, is largely …show more content…
It can include many varieties, i.e. standard British or American English, regional or social dialects, etc. TL implies a second-language-acquisition perspective in which the target language is accessible. Another term used for roughly the same concept is “superstrate language” which stresses power and accessibility and leaves it open as to whether the dominant language is accessible or not.
L2: Second Language refers to English as an acquired second language and can include many varieties; EFL (English as a foreign language), ESL (English as a second language), and Immigrant Englishes.
EFL: English as a Foreign Language refers to an L2 English used in countries where its influence has been external rather than through colonization or settler English. EFL is typically acquired for international purposes rather than intranational and is due to globalization in economics, communication, and culture. EFL is also not typically expressed as an official language of a society and a speaker may or may not be …show more content…
The difference between ESL and immigrant english is in the degree of influence metropolitain (mother) english has over the latter. In narrow ESL, the L2 speakers are in a majority and educated L2 speakers are the norm, whereas in immigrant english the L2 speakers are in a minority and regularly exposed to the norms of the TL. 2. Braj Kachru’s model of English first appeared in English Today in 1988 (Mesthrie & Bhatt 28). His model included circles like the other models but his were no longer concentric; there was no center holding everything together (Mesthrie & Bhatt 29). The “Inner Circle” includes influential ENL’s and are considered to be “norm providing” (Mesthrie & Bhatt 29). ENL’s, countries where English is the primary language of the great majority of the population and is spoken and used as the Native Language, include countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia (Kirkpatrick 27).
The “Outer Circle” includes countries of ESL that have developed their own spoken norms, but rely on models for written English (Mesthrie & Bhatt 29). ESL’s, countries where English is not the main language but is still important or included as an official language, include countries like India, Malaysia, and the Philippines (Kirkpatrick