Motor Control Research Paper

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Motor function and motor control begin in the motor cortex of the brain. The primary motor cortex is associated with generation of a motor program. Premotor areas are involved in complicated motor functions, such as required changes in output forces or velocities, or motor response to visual or auditory input. Also, the basal ganglia and thalamus are important coordinating centers for goal­directed motor programs and patterns. The cerebellum allows for unimpeded movements of those motor programs. Motor programs are continuously adjusted throughout an action, made possible by constant afferent input about the movement taking place.
Inputs to motor neurons may lead to various degrees of tension, which depends on muscle length, load on the muscles, and degree of muscle fatigue. Feedback informs the motor control systems of the tension achieved, which is provided by vision, as well as skin, muscle, and
joint receptors. Golgi tendon organs are afferent nerve fibers that supply the motor control systems with information about muscle length and tension, allowing for modification of ongoing motor programs. Muscle spindles monitor muscle length and rate of change in muscle length.2
Learning of a movement involves refinement of a motor program characterized by faster execution and smoother movement, made possible by plasticity of synapses. This
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Fatigue leads to an overall decrease in performance, characterized by an increased perceived effort to output an intended force and eventual failure to output it. Also observed is a decrease in motor neuron discharge frequency resulting from optimization of 1, 5 3, 4 force. Proprioceptive input is altered, and force output becomes more variable. Muscle spindles are also affected by fatigue. Fatigue causes a decrease in muscle spindle discharge. In local muscle fatigue, basic metabolic products such as arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E , and 2 lactic acid directly impact the muscle spindle discharge

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