Motivational Theories and Factors Essay examples

854 Words Mar 22nd, 2012 4 Pages
Motivational Theories and Factors
According to DuBrin, “…motivation is an energizing force that stimulates arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior” (2004, p. 121). It is the force inside the individual and process which allows us to get others to put forth effort. There are many motivational theories that can be used to motivate others (DuBrin, 2004).
In the workplace, managers may need to find ways to motivate their employees. Three ways a manager might motivate their employees are: Setting goals, using operant conditioning to change behaviors, and using monetary incentives. These may all be used to motivate employees (DuBrin, 2004). Goals are what motivate us and others to strive to achieve accomplishments either set by
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When given a choice between being rewarded or punished for behaviors, I will always avoid the negative behavior and opt for achieving rewards (DuBrin, 2004).
Vroom’s Expectancy theory and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory are two popular motivational theories. The Expectancy theory and Hierarchy of Needs theory have similar and contrasting ways of motivation. The Expectancy theory focuses on personal choices that an individual must make when faced with the possibility of working hard to achieve rewards and are affected by individual perceptions. Expectancy is how a person perceives the subject probability that one thing will lead to another. How a person’s perception of expectancy for effort will lead to performance and how performance will lead to reward probabilities (valance) increase, so does a person’s motivation force increase. (Scholl, 2002).
The Hierarchy of Needs theory is based on satisfying our innate physiological needs first (food, shelter, water), then safety (job security, earning an income), then moving up the hierarchy ladder to satisfy our need for growth (love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Maslow states that until our basic needs are met first, we cannot move up the hierarchy ladder (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2011).
The two theories are similar because they both have forces that drive our motivation. However, Maslow generalizes about our motivation

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