Osteoporosis Risk Factors

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Osteoporosis, which is one of the most common bone disorders has many risk factors. A risk factor is any factor that boosts the possibility of developing a disease. Osteoporosis can be caused as a result of many factors such as lifestyles, hormonal imbalances, aging, and genes. These four risk factors are the most potent risk factors that may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Risk factors are divided into two types modifiable and fixed. Modifiable risk factors are the factors which we can be eliminated and controlled, however, fixed risk factors can not be eliminated and controlled. For instance, lifestyle is a modifiable risk factor, but age and family history are examples of fixed risk factors.1 Lifestyles …show more content…
Hormones have important effects upon physiological activities of the body. In addition, hormones play a major role in the regulation of bone remolding. However, when the levels of hormones change, they can affect the body negatively and cause some diseases such as osteoporosis. Some hormones such as estrogen and testosterone (female and male sex hormones) preserve bone strength, increase the bone mineral density (BMD), and prevent fractures. Therefore, if the levels of these hormones change and decreased, it can decrease the bone density.2,3 Aging is another significant risk factor. As a person ages, the remolding process removes more bones than it is produced. As a result, in elderly people the bone mass is decreased.1,3 Hormonal imbalances and aging are influential risk factors which contribute in having …show more content…
Genes include many subfactors such as gender, ethnicity, body size and family history. Gender is considered as a risk factor because there are specific types of osteoporosis which are more common in females and other types are more common to affect males. Ethnicity means that people differ in their susceptibilities to the disease, according to their ethnic groups. For example, a study shows that osteoporosis is more common among Caucasian and Asian population. Also body size which includes the body frame (is it big or small), body weight (low or high), and bone mass (low or high bone mass) has a major affect upon developing osteoporosis. Family history means a history of osteoporosis or fractures in the family which can be a risk factor. Osteoporosis mainly depends on the BMD, and the regulation of the BMD is affected by genes. Therefore, osteoporosis is affected by genes. Some of the genes that are associated with causing osteoporosis are the vitamin D receptor, alpha collagen gene and estrogen receptor. Moreover, osteoporosis can result from a mutation in a single gene. However, osteoporosis is rarely caused by a

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