Peru's Journey To Independence

Improved Essays
1810 marked the beginning of the Spanish American Rebellions when nations in Latin America began to gain their independence from Spain. With the help of patriot rebels and a growing sense of nativism amongst the colonies, nations such as Mexico and Peru fought for independence. Mexico’s journey involved a large uprising of indigenous and mestizo populations that sparked the concept of nativism that led Mexico’s patriot armies to independence. Peru, on the other hand, avoided a large rebellion and gained its independence with the help of two South American patriot army leaders. However, it was a long fight for both nations to gain independence from Spanish rule.

Mexico’s journey to independence started in the early 1800’s as Creole and indigenous
…show more content…
Unlike Mexico in the early 1800’s, Peru did not want to take the risk of revolting against Peninsulars. Peruvian Creoles knew that it was a dangerous situation to form a revolt of indigenous people against the Peninsulars because they had dealt with a similar situation in the past where thousand of Indians, mestizos, and Creoles were killed during a rebellion (Hudson). So, Peru took a slower approach to independence than Mexico (Chasteen 97). It wasn’t until 1817 when patriot army leaders Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin began fighting for independence in northern South America eventually Peru. Between 1817-1822, Bolivar had gained the support from llaneros in northern South America. With the help of the llaneros and Bolivar’s own patriot army, he successfully gained control over all of northern South America (Chasteen 105). During these same years, Jose de San Martin had been leading a patriot army in southwestern South America. After defeating Chilean royalists in the south, his army set out to defeat royalists in Peru. San Martin set forth towards Lima and was able to capture the city because the viceroy of Lima had retreated (Hudson). Although San Martin was able to free Lima from Spanish rule, he was not able to gain full independence for all of Peru. San Martin needed the help and resources of Bolivar to free Peru because he was unsuccessful in doing it himself. So, …show more content…
Patriot leaders and a sense of nativism were strong forces driving the expedition to freedom in both nations. Mexico’s road to independence was characterized by large rebellions against Peninsulars and an American identity solidified by Jose Maria Morelos. Peru’s slower approach and avoidance of revolts contrasted with Mexico. It wasn’t until the patriot leaders of South America Jose de San Martin’s and Simon Bolivar’s attempts to conquer Spanish rule did Peru gain independence. The achievement of independence for Mexico and Peru represented the end of Spanish rule in the

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    In the early 19th century, when the momentum of the revolution was driving most of Latin America to fight for independence, the wave skipped over Central America. In this area, like most of Latin America, independence was a debate amongst the elite (creoles). It was in the creoles best interest, at the time, to stay under Spanish rule since they did not believe they could control the lower classes on their own. It also did not help that the Spanish military was strong in the region; a revolt would have been more difficult for Central America. Liberals did, however, declare independence later on and a struggle for power created turmoil in the region for a…

    • 1175 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    After the anonymous sinking of the USS Maine in Cuba in Havana Harbor, United States’ intervention became a popular and growing command. The War ended when America gained possession of territories in the Western Pacific and North America. The Spanish-American War changed the countries involved into what they are today. Cuba was one of the first countries affected by the Spanish-American War. In 1868 until 1878, Cubans personified by guerrilla fighters, known as mambises, fought for autonomy of Spain(1).…

    • 1460 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The slaves felt that the American people would do nothing to stop at acquiring the new land, even if it led to war. The slaves feel an overwhelming connection to those falling victim to the American 's, seeing them as "comrades" that will suffer together. However, those who opposed the expansion to Mexico were seldom heard by the determined President, and Polk resorted to more threatening actions. After the failure of appointing John Slidell to negotiate terms with the Mexicans, tensions spiked when Mexican troops claimed the lives of twelve Americans under command of Zachary Taylor. On May 11, 1846 just two weeks after the attack, President Polk drafted a letter addressed to Congress urging them " to recognize the existence of war."…

    • 1902 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Lastly, as Polk insisted, it is the country’s and its citizens’ duty to “…vindicate with decision [to go to war for] the honor, the rights, and the interests of [the] country.” (p. 75). However, it’s extremely important to note Polk’s desire to acquire California. Polk had previously attempted to buy California before these conflicts had even arisen. He wanted to prevent Britain from making any claims on the land and also held knowledge of gold and silver in the area that would eventually lead to the Gold Rush. Thus, by being able to declare war against Mexico with accusations that were seen as skeptic to many, he would be able to kill two birds with one…

    • 1006 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    But he did not achieve all the goal of his life because he may made some of wrong revolutionary strategic decision caused the significant losses in the age of revolution. For example, he ignored to establish the revolutionary united front issue and when his army got triumphed. Also, he excluded Jose de San Martin out from the revolutionary camp because both of them have a different political point, and Martin was a hero of South America and eminent leader of the independence war. All of those events resulted bolivar gradually lost masses base and trust of citizens However, Bolivar still was a model to against colonialism and a great liberator to liberate South America even though he was not an excellent military officer and defeated many times in the revolution…

    • 1533 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    War Of 1812 Dbq Outline

    • 1997 Words
    • 8 Pages

    This led to the rebellion of American settlers in which they declared independence from Spain (U.S Department of State). According to the U.S Department of State, “President James Madison and Congress used the incident to claim the region, knowing full well that the Spanish government was seriously weakened by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain”. This issue continued to be a problem until the presidency of Monroe and the vice presidency of John Quincy Adams. Territory was gained by the Americans during the War of 1812. Land meant wealth and wealth led to power.…

    • 1997 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Cuba In The 21st Century

    • 2341 Words
    • 10 Pages

    The greatest example of this was the heavy presence of the U.S. in Latin America and parts of Asia. Just as the country was swept into a war with Mexico, they were swept into a war with Spain. In the late 1800’s, Cuba was fighting for their independence from Spain. The U.S. had backed Cuba as they believed it was right for them to fight for their democracy just as the U.S. had done the same a hundred years ago. The real reasons for the war were shadowy journalism that showed anti-Spanish sentiment and increased pressure on the president to acquire lands in other parts of the world.…

    • 2341 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    A revolution is an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed. The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which the thirteen colonies broke from the British empire and formed an independent nation. The Latin American Wars of Independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. These two revolutions were fueled by feelings of nationalism due to oppressive rule from Britain and Spain, such as with the restrictive mercantile system. Enlightenment ideas also nurtured the colonists of America…

    • 1272 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The Rise of American Imperialism in the Spanish-American War This historical analysis will define the rise of American imperialism in the Spanish-American War of 1898. During the late 1890s, the growth of American military intervention had become a part of the political and economic factors that allowed the invasion of Cuba during the Spanish-American war. President McKinley was initially reluctant to engage in an international war with Spain, yet pressure from pro-war political parties, industrial interests, and popular anti-Spanish sentiment led to American military assistance in Cuba. Under McKinley, governmental leadership established the rationale for invading Cuba as part of a larger imperial objective to control trade and political…

    • 1082 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Mexican Liberalism

    • 1733 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Following this, in 1808, the take over of Joseph Bonaparte in Spain caused many liberal criollos and lower class members to seek independence from Spanish rule in 1810. This lasted until 1820, when royalist members secured Mexico’s independence to maintain their control over governance, which resulted in emperor Iturbide. However, his abuse of power proved to be too much for the people, which changed the Empire to a Republic, in 1823. Between 1824-1832, three presidents ruled the republic in failure: 1) President Victoria- focused on foreign policy instead of the economy 2) President Guerrero- abolished slavery, expelled Peninsulares, and refused to give up power after an attempted Spanish Conquest 3) President Bustamante- became a dictator. These failures led to the Presidency of Santa Ana, who dealt with land battles and repayment to foreign governments until ousted by liberals in 1853.…

    • 1733 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays