Essay on Mendelian Genetics

3135 Words Dec 24th, 2014 13 Pages
MENDELIAN GENETICS DEFINITION OF TERMS * Genetics – the study of heredity and variation * Heredity – the transmission of traits from one generation to another, from parents to offspring; the protoplasmic continuity between parents and offspring * Variation – any difference existing between individuals of the same species * Chromosome – rod-shaped body in the nucleus of eukaryotes and prokaryotes that contains the hereditary units or genes seen particularly during cell division * Gene – the unit or heredity occupying a particular location on the chromosome and passed on to offspring * Locus – the location of a gene on a chromosome * Diploid – the 2N number of chromosomes; twice the number of chromosomes …show more content…
ross – cross in which the parents differ in two pairs of alternative character * Homologous chromosomes – a pair of chromosomes that have the same shape and contains genes for the same traits * Mutation – a sudden change in the genetic make-up; an abrupt and heritable modification of a character BEFORE MENDEL * The belief was Blending Theory of Inheritance * Both sexes contribute equally to a new individual * A cross between plants with red flowers and plants with white flowers would yield only plants with pink flowers GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL * An Austrian Augustinian monk; born in 1822 to peasant parents * Studied science and mathematics at the University of Vienna where he failed an exam for a teaching certificate * Taught natural science at a local technical school * Formulate certain laws of heredity in early 1860s THE WORK OF MENDEL * Mendel’s experiments * he chose to work with the garden pea, Pisum sativum; this plant was easy to cultivate and had a short generation time * he chose 22 varieties of peas * when these varieties self-pollinated, the offspring were like the parent plants and like each other * he cross-pollinated the varieties for his experiment * studied the inheritance of relatively distinguishable traits, seed shape, seed color, and flower color * he followed the inheritance of individual traits, he gathered statistical data and used his understanding of mathematical

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