Steroids Research Paper

1910 Words 8 Pages
While athletes may be tempted to use steroids to improve their performance, in reality steroid use can lead to serious health complications and require medical treatment. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2006), steroids promote the growth of skeletal muscle (anabolic effects) and the development of male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects) in both males and females. Steroids are referred to as performance enhancement drugs as well. Steroid abuse is found in most cases of athletes. An athlete is defined as a person trained or gifted in exercises or contests involving physical agility, stamina, or strength; a participant in a sport, exercise, or game requiring physical skill. Steroids have been around as early as the …show more content…
Males are not the only athletes to use steroids; females use them as well. For males, physical effects of steroids include: atrophy (wasting away of tissues or organs) of the testicles, loss of sexual drive, diminished or decreased sperm production, breast and prostate enlargement, decreased hormone levels, acne, skin tissue damage at the site of injection, shrinkage of the testicles, decreased semen volume, frequent or continuing erections, elevated blood pressure, increased LDL cholesterol levels, decreased HDL cholesterol levels, fluid retention leading to swelling, abnormal liver function, prostate enlargement and bleeding (Diversion Control Division, 2004). For females, physical effects of steroids include: acne, oily skin, tissue damage at injection site, deepening of the voice, increased body and facial hair growth, enlargement of the clitoris, male pattern baldness, decreased breast size, menstrual irregularities (missed periods or no periods) and fluid retention leading to swelling (Diversion Control Division, 2004). A needle for intramuscular injection is used for most steroids. By using a needle, some may share needles that could possibly lead to other risks such as HIV/AIDs and skin infections. Steroids can also lead to neurological effects. For both males and females, these neurological effects could possibly include: aggressive and violent behavior, manic episodes, delusions, irritability, paranoia, and depression (Center for Substance Abuse Research, 2013). Anabolic steroids can affect the brains neurotransmitter systems. These neurotransmitter systems have dopamine and serotonin. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is connected to how the human body feels pleasure. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is associated with how the human body regulates mood and is known to regulate body functions such as impulse and obsession. Both

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