Durkheim's Theoretical Analysis

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To reiterate, Durkheim believed that through the division of labor, solidarity arises within a society. Therefore, Durkheim argues that there are two types of solidarity which are mechanical and organic solidarity.
According to Durkheim, mechanical solidarity is based on likeness. These societies are characterized by likeness, in which the people of society share similarities. For instance, Durkheim said that in early society, men and women were similar. They had similarities. Since during this time, there was less division of labor. In the other hand, organic solidarity was based on complementary differences (strong bond). In the late 1800’s, Durkheim had this notion whereby women’s brains gotten smaller. He also believed that marriages
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In mechanical solidarity, the state’s role is to restore and protect the collective consciousness. According to the book, The Division of Labor in Society, Durkheim stated, “The machinery of government certainly plays an outstanding role in society, but there are other bodies in society whose interests continue to be vital and yet whose functioning is not underpinned in the same manner. If the brain is of importance, the stomach is likewise an essential organ, and the latter’s ailments may be threatening to life, just as are the former’s” (42). Therefore, Durkheim believed that the state is the defender of the collective consciousness and that the state is the brain of society. In order to restore the collective consciousness, society produces lots of repressive or penal laws. The reason there are penal laws is because they serve as a function of punishment for those who commit crimes and disturb those with have healthy consciousness. Although crime disturbs the collective consciousness of people, Durkheim believed crime in society is normal and necessary, because we cannot live in a society without crime. According to him, society with crime is healthy because it will help restore the collective consciousness through punishment. That said, the primary function of punishment, therefore, is to protect and reaffirm the collective consciousness, and deter them from disturbing those who have a healthy consciousness. In addition, punishment serves us (healthy consciousness) to remind ourselves that crimes have consequences. Those who get punished for being criminal, let us know that it is not good to engage in crime. Therefore, people all come together to an agreement, to agree to not participate in any criminal acts. In organic solidarity, the state’s role is completely different. Since there is high division of labor in society, people interact

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