# Maxwell And Faraday Research Paper

1558 Words 7 Pages
Maxwell and Faraday- A Brief History of Electromagnetism

The field of electromagnetism was established in 1819, twelve years before Maxwell was born. Hans Christian Oersted from Denmark was the first scientist who thought of the possibility that magnetism and electricity were related. He considered such a possibility because of the observations he made during an experiment. He Placed a wire above a compass and passed a current through the wire. He noticed that the needle of compass moved when current was passing through the wire. André Ampère was greatly inspired by Oersted’s findings and worked on it to create a mathematical formula that later became Maxwell’s fourth equation of electromagnetism in the year 1821. (Peters, 2000) Around the
The Leyden Jar produced a strange phenomenon which provoked much debate among scientific community at that time. A scientist accidentally received an electric shock from touching the external surface of the jar even though only the inner surface had been charged. (Wolfram Research Products, 2007) This was a strange and unexpected. Many scientists engaged in debate about the a possible explanation behind the above-mentioned phenomenon. While many of the scientists attributed this phenomenon to a theory termed “action at a distance” which presumes that since insulators block electric current, the only reason why a charge is found on the outer surface is that electricity can work at a distance, the way gravity does. They explained that when electricity was accumulating on the inner surface, an electricity of the opposite charge was attracted to the outer surface. Therefore, when the scientist touched the outer surface, he received an electric shock. (The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation, 1918) Maxwell, however, was not satisfied with this explanation. Instead, he thought of Faraday’s “lines of force”. He therefore developed the concept that electricity does not just travel along lines of force but that it also requires a medium to travel in. He pointed out that insulating materials like glass restricts the flow of electric current but it does not terminate it. The restrictive force from the glass prevents electricity from returning to equilibrium until the charging force manages to overcome it. When the charging force eventually manage to overcome the resistance force, the electricity returns to equilibrium through an electric current. (The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation, 1918) His explanation proved to be a more realistic way to interpret the actual physical

• ## The Scientific Revolution: The Contributions Of Isaac Newton

He considered alchemy the means to explain what made the physical laws work (2009). For Newton, it was not enough to derive the mathematical models or laws to explain why something worked. He wanted to understand how it worked instead. Because of this, Newton was the first to introduce something similar to the Scientific Method. He came up with a system in which he could order not just his alchemical experiments, but all experiments, and test one theory after another.…

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• ## Niels Bohr And The Theory Of The Atom

Not soon after, his pupil Ernst Rutherford would disprove his model by discovering the positively charged nucleus with his gold foil experiment. The discovery of the nucleus disproved the plum pudding model and gave way to the nuclear model. Then, Niels Bohr, student of Ernst Rutherford, would then help explain the characteristics of elements and atoms by the discovery of valance electrons and the levels of charge. Even though Bohr does not have the right model, it is still used today to help teach the valance electrons. The correct representation of the atom, the cloud model, is an extreme explanation to the question of what makes up the…

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• ## Magnet Essay

There is a clear interaction between the magnet and the induced eddy currents, which leads to a damping force that consequently causes the magnet to fall in transient accelerated motion, which soon changes to uniform motion under the collective action of the gravitational and retarding forces. This constant speed is known as its terminal velocity. This experiment demonstrates the laws very well, however, it is not particularly useful for a comprehensive investigation as the magnet is out of view whilst in the tube. Lenz’s law can also be demonstrated through passing a metal sheet through a magnetic field and observing the slowing of the metal sheet, however, there are limited results from this experiment as the resources aren’t readily available. One of the benefits from this investigation is that the magnetic braking force acts continuously over the magnet, compared to a shorter period of time with a pendulum for example.…

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• ## Michael Faraday And Oersted Compare And Contrast

Jacob Schuster Comparing and Contrasting Michael Faraday and Hans Christian Orsted Michael Faraday and Hans Christian Oersted were both Chemists and Physicists in the 1800’s. They both discovered the connection between magnetism and electricity. This paper will give backgrounds on both Faraday and Oersted and will compare and contrast their works. Michael Faraday was born in London on September 22, 1791. He was the first person to produce an electric current from a magnetic field, He discovered diamagnetism and explained why some substances react opposite to a magnetic force when they encounter a magnetic field.…

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• ## Michael Faraday's Discovery Of Electricity In The 18th-19th Century

In the 18th to 19th century, the world of electricity was seen as a bit of a mystery to scientists of these days. Although it was a mystery, scientists were still aware of this phenomena. A few facts were known here and there about the subject, but there were really no known examinations or experiments on it. Like all other sciences, electricity would not be advanced until scientists actually realized that it was something worth exploring. In A Century of Electricity, the author writes, “Electricity as a science was above all other areas of science in that it depended for its development on experimentation” (Syndor 1).…

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• ## J. J Thomson: The Discovery Of Atoms

Many German physicists thought that cathode rays was some form of radiation while most of British physicists believed that the Cathode Ray was a stream of negative charged particles. Though the many experiments of Thomson, Thomson was able to prove that the cathode rays were indeed a stream of negative charged particles. An observation made by Thomson was that the cathode rays are deflected by an electric field. Another scientist by the name of Hertz experimented if cathode rays would be deflected, he was unable to see the deflection, and this gave the support to the view that cathode rays are not electric…

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• ## Galileo Galilei: The Life Of Galileo

This is another experiment that some argue Galileo never truly did any experiments on regarding this theory. But when Galileo’s said experiment was tested by some students using a spherical wooden ball and another one made of iron, the wooden ball was ahead of the iron balls when falling. The explanation for this is that since the iron ball is slightly heavier than the wooden balls, it took longer to release the iron ball. This later became known as the Law of Falling Bodies or the Law of Acceleration. Reported by Helden (1995) “...and in the end he arrived at the law of falling bodies which states that in a vacuum all bodies, regardless of their weight, shape, or specific gravity, are uniformly accelerated in…

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• ## Erwin Schrodinger: The Physics Of The Universe

Erwin Schrödinger, an Austrian born chemist, gained his famed for his contributions to quantum mechanics. Some of his contributions to chemistry and quantum mechanics were his books describing his techniques and basic info behind his work, his paradox, Schrodinger’s cat, which created a lot of new discoveries in chemistry, and his equation that changed how many people viewed the atom and its electrons. At at young age, Schrodinger was strongly influenced by the philosophy of Austrian philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (Mastin, Luke. "Erwin Schrödinger - Important Scientists - The Physics of the Universe."). Born on August 12, 1887, Erwin Schrodinger grew up in Vienna and attended the Akademisches Gymnasium High School in his teenage years and…

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• ## Kuhn's Theory Of Paradigm

Chemists of the 1800 's believed that in flammable substances and in the air existed a material called phlogiston. In their paradigm, phlogiston was responsible for combustion. For most of their researched endeavours, this paradigm worked. However, there was an anomaly: based on the paradigmatic idea that phlogiston is released when things burn, combustion reactions defied the conservation of mass; when substances underwent combustion, their mass increased, which is counterintuitive when one considers they believed a substance was released. Most chemists of the day overlooked this anomaly or attempted to explain it away as phlogiston somehow having a negative mass.…

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• ## The Four Fundamental Forces

The third law of motion is the law of interaction. This states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For every actions force there is an equal force of action in the opposite direction. It took Galileo, Copernicus, and Kepler to prove Aristotle 's theory wrong. On the basis of this, Newton came up with the three laws that play a significant role in the unearthing of the concept of gravitational force but his laws do not completely explain everything necessary to know about gravitational…

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