Essay about Maritime
Outline of Presentation
• Objectives of Study
• Development of Marine Environment Laws
• Compliance with Marine Environment Laws in Malaysia
Introduction – Environmental Law
• Body of international convention, domestic statutes
or laws, state or provincial ordinances and local government bylaws that govern human activities which impact the environment.
- avoid tragedy of the commons
- eliminate free riders in environmental protection and control of pollution
And in response to:
- the growing development of environmental ethics - the changing requirement of …show more content…
• Need to continuously adapt to changing conditions. Development of Marine Environment Laws in
Malaysia: Land-Based Pollution Laws
• Close correlation between economic focus and land-based pollution laws.
• 3 observable phases
- rubber and palm oil
- electronic and manufacturing
- development control
• Compliance level high.
• Innovative approaches used.
• 3 main sources.
• Levels of regulation vary:
Industrial = High
Domestic/Municipal = Medium
Non-point (agriculture) = Low
• EIA based
• Pioneer in the region
• A few test cases
• Compliance an issue
Development of Marine Environment Laws in
Malaysia: Vessel-Based Pollution Laws
• Laws have been in force since 1974 (EQA) and
1984 (EEZ Act).
• Penalties increased in response to spate of pollution incidents in early 1990s.
• “Fine not exceeding five hundred thousand ringgit or to imprisonment nor exceeding five years or to both” under sections 27 and 29 of
• Fine “not exceeding one million ringgit” under
• Includes provisions for detention of vessels and posting of bonds.
• Increased penalty and strict enforcement has reduced incidents.
• Prosecution of cases however low.
Prosecution of Vessels Caught Polluting Malaysian Waters under Section 27 of the EQA, 2001 - 2003
Number of Illegal