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SONOLUMINESCENCE: How Bubbles Turn Sound into Light
S. J. Putterman and K. R. Weninger
Physics Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000.32:445-476. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY on 08/14/09. For personal use only.
Key Words energy focusing, nonlinear dynamics, complexity, hydrodynamics gas bubble, continuum mechanics, shock shape instabilities, chemical hydrodynamics
Abstract Sonoluminescence, the transduction of sound into light, is a phenomenon that pushes ﬂuid mechanics beyond its limit. An initial …show more content…
Hiller et al 1994, Barber et al 1997a, Putterman 1998, Crum 1994, Putterman
1995). The energy of a UV photon compared with that of a single atom vibrating
PUTTERMAN Ⅲ WENINGER
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000.32:445-476. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY on 08/14/09. For personal use only.
in the imposed sound ﬁeld represents an energy focusing that spans 12 orders of magnitude. Nature’s tendency to focus energy in the off-equilibrium motion of ﬂuids is spectacularly robust. Figure 1 shows a photo of a single bubble attached to a wire in an acoustically excited ﬂuid (Weninger et al 1997). Owing to the boundary conditions imposed by the wire, the bubble is not spherical but is distorted into an approximation of a hemisphere. Yet this bubble pulsates synchronously with the sound ﬁeld, expanding during the rarefaction part of the acoustic cycle and collapsing so strongly during the ensuing compression that the input acoustic energy is transduced into UV