Shrimp Aquaculture

Good Essays
2.2.1.1 Temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen
After extensive studies, several authors have mentioned certain physical, chemical and biological parameters of water and sediment as important for the aquaculture of marine shrimps. Along with dissolved oxygen, water temperature and salinity are considered as significant parameters because of their close association in aquatic ecosystem (OSPAR, 2005). The maximum water temperature recommended by Nunes et al., 2005 and ABBC, 2005 was 32°C, though the lower limit recommended by them varied slightly. Boyd (1990) suggests that 28-30°C is essential for the shrimp aquaculture. However, the optimal level mentioned by Chávez (2009) was 18° to 33°C. Water temperature along with salinity is dependent
…show more content…
P. monodon is euryhaline with the ability to tolerate a wide range of salinity (1 to 57 ppt) (Chen, 1990). The optimum salinity suggested for L. vannamei culturing by Ferreira et al. (2011) is 15 ppt. The energy spent in osmoregulation will be minimal when aquatic organisms are reared in isosmotic solutions. Maintenance of optimum salinity was found to increase the tolerance of P. setiferus and P. schmitti post larvae to low oxygen concentration (Rosas et al., 1997). The ability of shrimps to tolerate variations in salinity depends on its developmental stage. Post larvae were found to be under osmotic stress and their oxygen consumption was more in higher salinities (Alvarez et al., 2004) whereas larger shrimps were found to tolerate lower salinities well (Bett and Vinatea, 2009). Though they may tolerate salinity changes, acute salinity variations, if they are coupled with poor water quality is stressful to shrimps (Brock and Main, 1994). In response to acute salinity changes, shrimps such as L. vannamei, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damages its own cells. It has been shown that such cellular damage caused by salinity stress can be controlled by supplementing shrimp feed with Vitamin E (Liu et al., 2007a). As per studies, wide variation in temperature and salinity can compromise shrimp health leading to ion regulation stress (Lemaire et al., 2002; ABCC, 2005). Tendencia et al. (2010) have noted the combined role of water temperature, salinity and Vibrio count in the risk of WSSV infections in P. monodon in the Philippines. Salinity is an important factor which determines the survival of V. cholerae (Thomas et al., 2006), the newly emerging pathogen of P. monodon along the Cochin backwaters (Joseph et al.,, 2015a). Acute low salinity stress was found to affect the immunity of P. monodon and increased their susceptibility to WSSV (Joseph

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Softer the water the better for treating fish. So, checking for these and selecting softer water would be of great help. In general freshwater tend to have some salts too attributing some lower salinity readings. To ensure effective AGD treatment, the used freshwater should have a salinity of less than 3ppt. So, intake water should also be checked for salinity.…

    • 1943 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Coral Bleaching Effects

    • 1701 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Symbiodium possess different types of chlorophyll and carotenoids which provide nutrients and color to corals. There are many causes of coral bleaching not just one direct cause. Because they are so sensitive coral bleaching can be caused by temperature flux and influxes, darkness, introduction to a large amount of CO2, and pathogenic micro-organisms. With so many possible causes of coral collapses it is an easy observe to make that these symbiotic relationships ecologically risky but offer a great reward if maintained for both species. Corals are made out of carbonate ions in particularly calcium carbonate or CaCO3, and with the influx of CO2 coral structures have been degrading over…

    • 1701 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    ntroduction The development of the oyster aquaculture become limited as there is a presence of the pathogenic associated microbe that can cause disease which lead to physiological and imbalance in that oyster. There is a few reports that describe the bacterial diversity which is poorly know and required to be further study. (Hernández and Olmos,2006). So, it is important to analyze the bacteria of oyster. This study is carry out to analyze the gram positive bacteria diversity present oyster, Crassostrea iredalei by applying molecular technique like DNA extraction and using of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).…

    • 1716 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    This specific species of fish tend to live in intermediate waters, but prefer to live in waters with a higher quality of water (Gatz et. Al 1993). These fish were abundant in the west end of Dug run compared to the east end of Dug Run shows a preference in a habitat that has a higher water quality compared to the lower water quality on the east side that we found doing a an experiment involving the amount of sensitive organisms found in the samples of the respective ends of the run. This final bit of information can help us finalize the results of our experiment and finalize if the hypothesis was correct or incorrect. After the final analysis of the data we can see that there is a difference in the fish community on the east and west side of dug run on the campus of the University of Northwestern Ohio based off of water quality but not species diversity.…

    • 1004 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    (2000) and Hu (2011) looked into controlling the levels of CO2 through the use of chemical additives. Hu (2011) concluded that this method could have negative side effects on recirculating aquaculture systems. The use of paddlewheel and submerged aerators for CO¬2 control was investigated by Eschar et al. (2003). He found that paddlewheel aerators are more efficient than the submerged aerators.…

    • 770 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Imhoff cones are mainly used to evaluate the bioflocs. This measures the concentration of the biofloc and the desirable range of biofloc concentration in shrimp pond and fish pond is different. In shrimp pond, the desirable range of biofloc concentration is between 1 and 40 ml/litre while a range of 2 to 100 ml/litre is found to be the ideal range in fish pond. Use of biofloc as a feed for aquaculture species Biofloc in finfish culture systems Biofloc technology can be applied in culturing various species of finfishes. The application of biofloc technology in red tilapia culture enhances the water quality and resistance to fish diseases (Widanarni et al., 2012).…

    • 2850 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    We used this in substitute of our usual Phenolphthalein due to where we were measuring when it got to equilibrium. One example of real life application for solubility has to do with purification of water. In areas with high pollution, water can be easily contaminated by harmful cations. Due to this environmental issue, different water filtration strategies must be used. One involves using seashells which causes these cations to precipitate as solids and to be easily filtered through different filters.…

    • 840 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Supplements and Additives: These are crucial for your fish and also to offer a balanced environment in the tank. The most vital are calcium and iodine, and as you shop for your saltwater fish supplies, you need to do not forget to get these. They also help the aquarium live rock to release more nutrition into the tank. You’ll need a test kit so that you can regularly check the levels of these additions in your tank. 9.…

    • 393 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Lagoa Vermelha Case Study

    • 1038 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Thus, the comparison was made with samples from the water column of the nearest lagoon system (Guerra et al, 2011), whose mean was 106 cells.mL-1, three orders lower than the values found at Lagoa Vermelha. The high number of bacterial cells have ensure an efficient process of mineralization of the primary production in the water column connected to the eutrophic condition of Lagoa Vermelha. In the water-sediment interface of Lagoa Vermelha, the halovirus morphotypes are icosahedral with contractile tails of medium length (myovirus) or short non-contractile tails (sifovirus and podovirus), with predominance of the Myoviridae family (42%). They are represented by both archaeal and bacterial haloviruses (Atanasova et al 2015). In the microbial mats of the Lagoa Vermelha, 64% of the VLPs belonged to the Caudovirales family with the following distribution: Siphoviridae (50%), Myoviridae (35%) and Podoviridae (15%) as was also described by Pacton et al.…

    • 1038 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Chlorine : Chlorine is a toxicant which is identified as leading cause of bladder cancer and also associates with rectal and blood cancer. It has been reported that asthma can be triggered by chlorinated water if we drink it (Watson and Kibler, 1993). Chlorine is used as disinfectant as it kills the microorganisms like certain bacteria, but the trouble is that it does not know when to stop killing which will lead to toxic effects for the body. It has also been shown that exposure to chlorine and hypochlorite will lead to dermatitis (Eun et al., 1984). Various researchers have been shown that there is effect of drinking water chlorine on lipid metabolism and thyroid functioning in white carneau pigeon (Revis et al., 1986).…

    • 937 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays