Marcus Garvey's Contributions

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1.Marcus Garvey along with his organization Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), felt that true integration of Afro-Americans with other races was not possible; that independence was the key to equality and respect. One of Garvey’s goals in his idea of “black nationalism” was racial pride and unity. The goal was to instill in Afro-Americans that they should think for themselves and to lift themselves up in order to not need help from others. He organization called for a sense of honor in their heritage and culture. Garvey also felt that Afro-Americans could only be equal if they were economically, politically, and culturally successful. Part of the economic goal was creating communities that were producing for their own needs. …show more content…
The migration of Southern African-Americans to the North between 1910 and 1920 was mainly due to economic and social concerns. The South still reeling from the effects of Civil War Reconstruction, the South was slow to recover economically. First, agricultural problems were affecting farmers in the south. Farmers still relied heavily on the cotton industry, however, cotton prices were falling. Crops were also affected by a boll weevil infestation and floods along the Mississippi were causing crops to fail. Farmers were not willing to become diversified and it had a devastating effect on profit. Most of these farms were owned by blacks. Faced with extreme poverty, Afro-Americans moved to where the jobs were being created due to World War I. Northern commerce was seeing an additional boost because of Europe’s need for war supplies. Also, many men were enlisted in the service, leaving many vacated jobs that needed to be filled. Wages were also better in the North, in some cases almost by 100% compared to the South. Social upheaval was adding to the increased migration. Farm workers were not only being held down financially by their employers they were being treated as if they were still enslaved. Through restrictive laws, blacks were losing the right to vote. “Jim Crow” laws were additionally forcing segregation and in the South making racial equality non-existent. These laws were used to intimidate and control African-Americans from prospering in the South. There was also increased violence to terrorize the black communities. Lynching was horrifically a common place, with as many as two or three lynching per week. Due to these lynchings, activists like Ida B. Welles encouraged blacks to save their money and leave the oppressed

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