Malaria Case Study Essay

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Introduction
Malaria is a lethal disease caused by the Plasmodium species that are transmitted to people through bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.1 There are 5 known Plasmodium species and among these, the P. falciparum is the most dangerous and deadly.1 According to the latest studies, there are approximately 198 million cases of malaria in 2013 and an estimated 584 000 deaths.2 However, Malaria mortality rates have decreased by 54% in the WHO African Region and nearly 47% globally since 2000.2 The case study take place in Tanzania where a 3 years old girl brought to the Hospital due to severe anemia caused by Malaria infection. Tanzania is a unitary republic in East Africa and Malaria is the commonest communicable disease there.3 The risk of infection with Malaria is the highest on lowland and during the rainy season.3 Meanwhile the high-risk group of infections belongs to pregnant women and young children.3

Pathophysiology of Anemia caused by Malaria
Malaria can be divided into uncomplicated Malaria and severe Malaria.4 Signs and
…show more content…
Anemia in malaria is due to hemolysis and reduce production of erythrocytes.8 Haemolysis of infested red blood cells (iRBC) is associated with the high density of parasaetaemia and schizontoemia.9 Meanwhile the increase in RBC destruction is correlated to the phagocytosis of iRBC and uninfected RBC (uRBC) due to proliferation and hyperactivity of macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system (RES).9 It was believed that uRBC loss is due to their premature senescence, with poor deformability inhibiting them from passing through the fenestrations of the splenic red pulp, thus makes them subject to phagocytosis.10 Whereas the decrease in erythropoiesis perhaps due to low concentration of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and suppression of erythropoietin synthesis.9 TNF-α might as well responsible for dyserythropoiesis due to its action on bone marrow suppression seen in

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