Magnetic Resonance Imagining

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Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRI) measure the frequency of magnetic-resonance signal. These signals can be measured at the same time, and their location is sorted based on resonant frequency. deCharms (2008) alikeness the MRI process to hearing several notes on a piano concurrently and then separating out the individual keys that produced each note based on the pitch of the note. MRI measures simultaneous signals emitted from an individual (just like the piano) and the origins of each signal are located based on a mathematical formula (identifying the individual keys). fMRI like MRI uses magnetic reasoning signals, however there are important distinctions between the two. MRI identifies anatomical structures whereas fMRI identifies brain activity …show more content…
(2009) examined brain activation and deception using realistic representations of deceptions (e.g. a line up). Individuals with antisocial tendencies, anxiety, and or/ depression were excluded from the study. Participants were shown 50 faces of a variety of racial identities. The participants were instructed to memorize every face. A recognition tasks was conduced to ensure participants were able to recall the faces. The “line up” task included ten trials with three faces two of which were unfamiliar. The other 20 “line up” triads had three unfamiliar faces. Participants selected face with a button press. The task consisted of two conditions: deception and truthful condition. The deception condition required participants to conceal the identify of an individual they had seen in the 50 faces by mentalizing their false choice. If none of the faces were familiar, they were instructed to mentalize the face they selected as if it was from the study set. In the truthfulness condition, participants were to correctly identify the individual viewed in the study set. Unfamiliar faces were included to allow for the comparison of two lies: when the identify of someone is known, but the individual does not want the investigator to know this and when the identity of the individual is unknown by the individual but thy would like the investigator to believe the face is known. This was done in attempt to simulate police line up identifications (Bhatt et al., …show more content…
This provides an indirect correlation measure of neuron activity (deCharms, 2008). fMRI measure the brain states parallel with ongoing mental activists or behavior. This does not allow researchers to make direct connections between brain states and behavior (Rusconi &Mitchener-Nissen, 2013). Current fMRI studies on deception require reverse inference, the activation of a certain brain region is taken as evidence of a particular cognitive function. (Rusconi & Mitchener-Nissen, 2013). This works if the brain state only occurs when the cognitive function is engaged, in other words it needs to be proven that the act of deception is not related to other cognitive processes. For example, activation in the prefrontal cortex during deception may be due to suppression of other responses. An individual may be suppressing anger or sadness, anxiety, fear, or any other heightened emotional state (Rusconi & Mitchener-Nissen, 2013). Complicating the results of fMRI is cognitive processes such as a working memory does not activate one specific region, but rather a pattern of activity across several brain regions. (Poldrack, 2008). fMRI may be valuable as one measure in a series of multilevel analyses in deception, it does not provide compelling evidence that certain neural substrates are solely responsible for the process of lying. As of 2007, when No Lie and Cephos Corporation were established, there were twelve peer

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