Low Birth Weight Literature Review

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Occupational Predictors of Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review of Literature
Abstract
The purpose of the present paper is to examine characteristics of working environment which are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery and low birth weightreport specific risk factors known to affect low birth weight. The specific risk factors which are the focus of the literature review are: occupational stress, occupational fatigue, long working hours, prolonged standing, heavy lifting, shift work during pregnancy. This in-depth review summarizes and interprets the available recent epidemiologic evidences on the relationship between occupational exposures and negative reproductive outcome among women workers. A systematic review
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Pregnancy has been always regarded as one of the important episodes that changes overall life of woman of reproductive age and in generally viewed as a joyful occasion. Pregnancy is not only a period of fulfilment for many women, but it is also regarded as a time of psychological and biological crisis and emotional turmoil. Pregnancy is a manifestation of various psychological and physiological changes which leads to a number of problems in psychological adjustment (Sieber, Germann, Barbir, & Ehlert, 2006). Even in uncomplicated pregnancies, the physical and emotional changes that accompany pregnancy can alter women's capability to function in their various roles, ultimately impacting their quality of life (Mckee, Cunningham, Jankowski & Zayas, 2001; Hueston & Kasik-Miller 1998). Numerous studies have documented significant elevations in psychological symptoms during pregnancy, including depression and anxiety, psychosocial and occupational stress and distress are quite prevalent during pregnancy (Giscombe, & Lobel, 2005; Lee, et al., 2007; Manber, Blasey, Allen, …show more content…
Birth weight may be low either because of premature birth, because of intrauterine growth retardation or because of a combination of both (Niedhammer, O'Mahony, Daly, Morrison & Kelleher, 2009; Shah &Ohlsson, 2002). Low Birth Weight is the single most powerful predictor of mortality in the first few months of life (FAO/WHO, 1992). Estimates indicate that half of the global LBW burden is in south Asia. India has been ranked third in Low Birth Weight.
Low birth weight has received major attention in recent years because of the continuing severity of its consequences (Oths, Dunn, & Palmer, 2001). Over 20 million babies are born each year weighing less than 2500g worldwide, resulting in a Low Birth Weight Rate (LBWR) of 15.5%. 95.6% of all Low Birth Weight babies are born in developing countries. On an individual basis, LBW is an important predictor of newborn health and survival and is associated with higher risk of infant and

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