Literature Review on Television Ads Essay

2389 Words Jul 11th, 2010 10 Pages
Literature Review On Television Ads
1. Television and Children
2. Television Commercials and Children
3. Television Commercials and Gender Roles
a. Content Analyses - Adults & Children
b. Impact
4. Television Commercials, Masculinity and Boys
a. Content Analyses
b. Impact
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1. Television and Children
In this section I will be reviewing the literature on children and television. It has been demonstrated that the average American viewer is exposed to 31 hours of television a week, of which three to nine hours is devoted to commercials (Furnham, & Bitar, 1993). In the case of children, the average preschooler watches 28 hours per week, while the average school-aged child, watches 24
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This situation creates interesting opportunities for research into the impact of television commercials on children. Using this situation, Goldberg hypothesized that the English speaking children living in Quebec would be influenced by the English speaking American commercials, but that French speaking children would not (1990). To assess this, he looked at children's awareness of various toys and sugared cereal products that were featured in children's advertising on the American stations. He discovered that English speaking children did in fact demonstrate greater recognition of the toys, and cereals featured in the American advertising (Goldman, 1990). Based on these findings, we can assume that television commercials are attended to by children, and that they gain knowledge from them. Whether the knowledge gained is positive is another matter.
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3. Television Commercials and Gender Roles:
a) Content Analyses - Adults & Children:
While many researchers have focused upon attempting to demonstrate the influence that television has on children, other researchers have looked more specifically at the issue of television and gender. Bretl and Cantor (1985) focused their study on adult characters in American commercials. They found that, despite improvements since the seventies in the status of female characters, the commercials of the early eighties still

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