Drosophila Melanogaster In Biological Research

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1 INTRODUCTION
Drosophila Melanogaster, also known as the fruit fly, is a most valuable organism in biological research that has made significant contributions particularly in genetics and research. It is used as a model organism in research for several reasons viz. Easily handled, sexually dimorphic, cheap and easy to keep large numbers, care and culture requires little equipments and well understood because of its short life cycle of just two weeks and also Entire genome of drosophila melanogaster has recently been sequenced. Size of the genome is about 165 million bases and estimated nearly 14,000 genes. More than 60% of drosophila genome is assumed to be functional non-protein-coding DNA but involved in gene expression control. Drosophila
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Imaginal disc is a feature of holometabolous insect larvae which leads to the development of outer part of the adult insect during pupation.
1.2 Expression of genes
Genes are the structural and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA, acts as an instruction for the making of molecules called protein. Hence, Genes encode proteins and proteins dictates cell function. Multicellular organism has the ability to differentially utilize the information contained in their genome in order to express the morphology of organism and generate functionally specialized cells during development. The process by which the genetic information used in the synthesis of functional gene product is called gene expression. Mainly functional gene products are proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer-RNA (t-RNA) or small nuclear RNA (sn RNA) , the gene products are functional RNA. Also, the gene expression is the interpretation of genetic code. At most fundamental level, gene expression is something at which genotype gives rise to phenotype i.e. observable trait. Measurement of mRNA levels in cell is used for the characterization of gene expression. In terms of both , which gene is expressed in what tissue and at what levels. RNA-seq is used to deduce the extent of the expression at which the sequence is

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