Leonard Peikoff

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With a hard stance for negative rights Leonard Peikoff claims that universal healthcare is not only unjust but immoral. In the article “Healthcare is Not a Right” Peikoff goes on to state that universal healthcare takes away peoples overall rights of freedom.
When focusing on the Declaration of Independence Peikoff argues that the only negative rights people have as Americans is the right to have life, property and the pursuit of happiness. This means that the right people are obligated to have are ones they can provide for themselves through hard work. By following these rules of conduct they can earn what they want without taking someone else’s rights away, unless they agree to help on their own accord. Without these rights their freedom
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It is not others responsibility to provide these things to them. To counter attack this argument Bradley writes, that the government is the reason why people’s rights are protected. The taxes that people pay help fund things such as the police force, prosecutors, and lawyers etc. to better protect its citizens. Then Bradley uses the U.S’s involvement in World War II, to show that positive rights have impacted the people in a way that supports the right to life, liberty, property and pursuit of happiness. When the U.S drafted Americans to fight for the Philippine’s liberty rights the used positive rights to honor the Philippine’s negative rights. Bradley claims that both of these examples help solidify Shue’s position that with negative rights there must be positive rights to counter balance each other. Shue then states how negative rights are presented by Peikoff as flawed, because people can’t always be self-serving if there is no one to protect their rights.
However Bradley creates an argument Peikoff may have to these claims. He claims that even though public enforcements such as the military force help protect negative rights to everyone, universal healthcare favors those who wouldn’t be able to afford it otherwise without tax payers
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Much like he claims in past statements Bradley argues that Norway took into consideration that not everyone is wired the same way, so some are in greater need of others assistance. Then again in Sweden Bradley argues that everyone’s thoughts that the poor are the ones who raise the most risk for higher healthcare usage was unjust. In fact the poorer group’s demands for healthcare services was lower then what would be expected given the quality of life in more unsubstantial living factors. Therefore he claims that everyone should have a right to healthcare given that everyone’s circumstances are different making equalizing healthcare important.
To wrap up his argument Bradley points out that there is no such thing as negative rights being the only moral rights there are, and that healthcare should be considered a right to the people. He then states that both Norway and Sweden have used negative and positive rights side by side through programs such as the ACOG, to maintain a more balanced healthcare to all that are in need of it. Therefore these rights help embrace people’s rights to life, liberty and pursuit of

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